- The Letter reaches
- Is forwarded to Anne
- Is laid before Henry B. Northrup
- The Statute of May 14, 1840
- Its Provisions
- Anne's Memorial to the Governor
- The affidavits Accompanying it
- Senator Soule's Letter
- Departure of the Agent appointed by the
- Arrival at Marksville
- The Hon. John P. Waddill
- The Conversation on New York Politics
- It suggests a Fortunate Idea
- The Meeting with Bass
- The Secret out
- Legal Proceedings instituted
- Departure of Northrup and the Sheriff from
Marksville for Bayou Boeuf
- Arrangements on the Way
- Reach Epps Plantation
- Discover his Slaves in the Cotton-Field
- The Meeting
- The Farewell
I am indebted to Mr.
Henry B. Northup and others for many of the
particulars contained in this chapter.
The letter written by Bass, directed to
Parker and Perry, and which was deposited in
the post-office in Marksville on the 15th day of August,
1852, arrived at Saratoga in the early part of
September. Some time previous to this, Anne
had removed to Glens Falls, Warren county, where she had
charge of the kitchen in Carpenter's Hotel. She
kept house, however, lodging with our children, and was
only absent from them during such time as the discharge
of her duties in the hotel required.
Messrs. Parker and Perry, on
receipt of the letter, forwarded it immediately to
Anne. On reading it the children were all
excitement, and without delay hastened to the
neighboring village of Sandy Hill, to consult Henry
B. Northup, and obtain his advice and assistance in
Upon examination, that gentleman found among the
statutes of the State an act providing for the recovery
of free citizens from slavery. It was passed May
14, 1840, and is entitled "An act more effectually to
protect the free citizens of this State from being
kidnapped or reduced to slavery." It provides that
it shall be the duty of the Governor, upon the receipt
of satisfactory information that any free citizen or
inhabitant of this State, is wrongfully held in another
State or Territory of the United States, upon the al
legation or pretence that such person is a slave, or by
color of any usage or rule of law is deemed or taken to
be a slave, to take such measures to procure the
restoration of such person to liberty, as he shall deem
necessary. And to that end, he is authorized to
appoint and employ an agent, and directed to furnish him
with such credentials and instructions as will be likely
to accomplish the object of his appointment. It
requires the agent so appointed to proceed to collect
the proper proof to establish the right of such person
to his freedom; to perform such journeys, take such
measures, institute such legal proceedings, &c, as may
be necessary to return such person to this State, and
charges all expenses incurred in carrying
ANNE'S MEMORIAL TO THE
the act into effect, upon moneys not
otherwise appropriated in the treasury.*
It was necessary to establish two facts to the
satisfaction of the Governor: First, that I was a free
citizen of New York; and secondly, that I was wrongfully
held in bondage. As to the first point, there was
no difficulty, all the older inhabitants in the vicinity
being ready to testify to it. The second point
rested entirely upon the letter to Parker and
Perry, written in an unknown hand, and upon the
letter penned on board the brig Orleans, which,
unfortunately, had been mislaid or lost.
A memorial was prepared, directed to his excellency,
Governor Hunt, setting forth her marriage, my
departure to Washington city; the receipt of the
letters; that I was a free citizen, and such other facts
as were deemed important, and was signed and verified by
Anne. Accompanying this memorial were
several affidavits of prominent citizens of Sandy Hill
and Port Edward, corroborating fully the statements it
contained, and also a request of several well known
gentlemen to the Governor, that Henry B. Northup
be appointed agent under the legislative act.
On reading the memorial and affidavits, his excellency
took a lively interest in the matter, and on the 23d day
of November, 1852, under the seal of the State,
"constituted, appointed and employed Henry B.
Northup, Esq., an agent, with full power to effect"
my restoration, and to take such measures as would
* See Appendix A.
be most likely to accomplish it, and instructing him to
proceed to Louisiana with all convenient dispatch.*
The pressing nature of Mr. Northup's
professional and political engagements delayed his
departure until December. On the fourteenth day of
that month he left Sandy Hill, and proceeded to
Washington. The Hon. Pierre Soule,
Senator in Congress from Louisiana, Hon. Mr.
Conrad, Secretary of War, and Judge
Nelson, of the Supreme Court of the United States,
upon hearing a statement of the facts, and examining his
commission, and certified copies of the memorial and
affidavits, furnished him with open letters to gentlemen
in Louisiana, strongly urging their assistance in
accomplishing the object of his appointment.
Senator Soule especially interested
himself in the matter, insisting, in forcible language,
that it was the duty and interest of every planter in
his State to aid in restoring me to freedom, and trusted
the sentiments of honor and justice in the bosom of
every citizen of the commonwealth would enlist him at
once in my behalf. Having obtained these valuable
letters, Mr. Northup returned to
Baltimore, and proceeded from thence to Pittsburgh.
It was his original intention, under advice of friends
at Washington, to go directly to New Orleans, and
consult the authorities of that city. Providentially,
however, on arriving at the mouth of Red River, he
changed his mind. Had he continued on, he would
not have met with Bass, in
• See Appendix B.
which case the search for me would
probably have been fruitless.
Taking passage on the first steamer that arrived, he
pursued his journey up Red River, a sluggish,
winding stream, flowing through a vast region of
primitive forests and impenetrable swamps, almost
wholly destitute of inhabitants. About nine
o'clock in the forenoon, January 1st, 1853, he left
the steamboat at Marksville, and proceeded directly
to Marksville Court House, a small village four
miles in the interior.
From the fact that the letter to Messrs.
Parker and Perry was post-marked at
Marksville, it was supposed by him that I was in
that place or its immediate vicinity. On
reaching this town, he at once laid his business
before the Hon. John P. Waddill, a
legal gentleman of distinction, and a man of fine
genius and most noble impulses. After reading
the letters and documents presented him, and
listening to a representation of the circumstances
under which I had been carried away into captivity,
Mr. Waddill at once proffered his
services, and entered into the affair with great
zeal and earnestness. He, in common with
others of like elevated character, looked upon the
kidnapper with abhorrence. The title of his
fellow parishioners and clients to the property
which constituted the larger proportion of their
wealth, not only depended upon the good faith in
which slave sales were transacted, but he was a man
in whose honorable heart emotions of indignation
were aroused by such an instance of injustice
Marksville, although occupying a prominent position,
and standing out in impressive italics on the map of
Louisiana, is, in fact, but a small and
insignificant hamlet. Aside from the tavern,
kept by a jolly and generous boniface, the court
house, inhabited by lawless cows and swine in the
seasons of vacation, and a high gallows, with its
dissevered rope dangling in the air, there is little
to attract the attention of the stranger.
Solomon Northup was a name Mr.
Waddill had never heard, but he was confident
that if there was a slave bearing that appellation
in Marksville or vicinity, his black boy Tom
would know him. Tom was accordingly
called, but in all his extensive circle of
acquaintances there was no such personage.
The letter to Parker and Perry was dated
at Bayou Boeuf. At this place, therefore, the
conclusion was, I must be sought. But here a
difficulty suggested itself, of a very grave
character indeed. Bayou Boeuf, at its nearest
point, was twenty-three miles distant, and was the
name applied to the section of country extending
between fifty and a hundred miles, on both sides of
that stream. Thousands and thousands of slaves
resided upon its shores, the remarkable richness and
fertility of the soil having attracted thither a
great number of planters. The information in
the letter was so vague and indefinite as to render
it difficult to conclude upon any specific course of
proceeding. It was finally determined,
however, as the only plan that presented any
prospect of success,
that Northup and the brother
of Waddill, a student in the office of the
latter, should repair to the Bayou, and traveling up
one side and down the other its whole length,
inquire at each plantation for me. Mr.
Waddill tendered the use of his carriage, and it
was definitely arranged that they should start upon
the excursion early Monday morning.
It will be seen at once that this course, in all
probability, would have resulted unsuccessfully.
It would have been impossible for them to have gone
into the fields and examine all the gangs at work.
They were not aware that I was known only as
Platt; and had they inquired of Epps
himself, ho would have stated truly that he knew
nothing of Solomon Northup.
The arrangement being adopted, however, there was
nothing further to be done until Sunday had elapsed.
The conversation between Messrs. Northup
and Waddill, in the course of the afternoon,
turned upon New York politics.
"I can scarcely comprehend the nice distinctions and
shades of political parties in your State," observed
Mr. Waddill. "I read of
soft-shells and hard-shells, hunkers and
barnburners, woolly-heads and silver-grays, and am
unable to understand the precise difference between
them. Pray, what is it?"
Mr. Northup, re-filling his pipe, entered
into quite an elaborate narrative of the origin of
the various sections of parties, and concluded by
saying there was another party in Now-York, known as
abolitionists. "You have seen none of those in this
part of the country, I presume?" Mr.
Northup re marked.
"Never, but one," answered Waddill, laughingly."
We have one here in Marksville, an eccentric
creature, who preaches abolitionism as vehemently as
any fanatic at the North. He is a generous,
inoffensive man, but always maintaining the wrong
side of an argument. It affords us a deal of
amusement. He is an excellent mechanic, and
almost indispensable in this community. He is
a carpenter. His name is Bass."
Some further good-natured conversation was had at the
expense of Bass' peculiarities, when
Waddill all at once fell into a reflective mood,
and asked for the mysterious letter again.
"Let me see — l-e-t m-e s-e-e!" he
repeated, thoughtfully to himself, running his eyes
over the letter once more. "'Bayou Boeuf,
August 15.' August 15 —post-marked here.
'He that is writing for me —' Where did Bass
work last summer?" he inquired, turning suddenly to
his brother. His brother was unable to inform
him, but rising, left the office, and soon returned
with the intelligence that " Bass work ed
last summer somewhere on Bayou Boeuf."
"He is the man," 'bringing down his hand emphatically
on the table,'" who can tell us all about Solomon
Northup," exclaimed Waddill.
Bass was immediately searched for, but could not
be found. After some inquiry, it was
THE MEETING WITH BASS
was at the landing on Red River.
Procuring a conveyance, young "Waddill and
Northup were not long in traversing the few
miles to the latter place. On their arrival,
Bass was found, just on the point of leaving,
to be absent a fortnight or more. After an
introduction, Northup begged the privilege of
speaking to him privately a moment. They
walked together towards the river, when the
following conversation ensued:
"Mr. Bass," said Northup, "allow me to
ask you if you were on Bayou Boeuf last August?"
"Yes, sir, I was there in August," was the reply.
"did you write a letter for a colored man at that place
to some gentleman in Saratoga Springs?"
"Excuse me, sir, if I say that is none of your
business," answered Bass, stopping and
looking his interrogator searchingly in the face.
"Perhaps I am rather hasty, Mr. Bass; I
beg your pardon; but I have come from the State of
New York to accomplish the purpose the writer of a
letter dated the 15th of August, post-marked at
Marksville, had in view. Circumstances have
led me to think that you are perhaps the man who
wrote it. I am in search of Solomon
Northup. If you know him, I beg you to
inform me frankly where he is, and I assure you the
source of any information you may give me shall not
be divulged, if you desire it not to be."
A long time Bass looked his new acquaintance
steadily in the eyes, without opening his lips.
He seemed to be doubting in his own mind if there
not an attempt to practice some deception upon him.
Finally he said, deliberately —
"I have done nothing to be ashamed of. I am the
man who wrote the letter. If you have come to
rescue Solomon Northup, I am glad to see
"When did you last see him, and where is he?"
"I last saw him Christmas, a week ago to-day. He
is the slave of Edwin Epps, a planter on
Bayou Boeuf, near Holmesville. He is not known
as Solomon Northup; he is called Platt."
The secret was out - the mystery was unraveled.
Through the thick, black cloud, amid whose dark and
dismal shadows I had walked twelve years, broke the
star that was to light me back to liberty. All
mistrust and hesitation were soon thrown aside, and
the two men conversed long and freely upon the
subject uppermost in their thoughts. Bass
expressed the interest he had taken in my behalf—his
intention of going north in the Spring, and
declaring that he had resolved to accomplish my
emancipation, if it were in his power. He
described the commencement and progress of his
acquaintance with me, and listened with eager
curiosity to the account given him of my family, and
the history of my early life. Before
separating, he drew a map of the bayou on a strip of
paper with a piece of red chalk, showing the
locality of Epps' plantation, and the road
leading most directly to it.
Northup and his young companion returned to
Marksville, where it was determined to commence
legal proceedings to test the
question of my right to freedom. I was made
plaintiff, Mr. Northup acting as my
guardian, and Edwin Epps defendant.
The process to be issued was in the nature of
replevin, directed to the sheriff of the parish,
commanding him to take me into custody, and detain
me until the decision of the court. By the
time the papers were duly drawn up, it was twelve
o'clock at night —too late to obtain the necessary
signature of the Judge, who resided some distance
out of town. Further business was therefore
suspended until Monday morning.
Everything, apparently, was moving along swimmingly,
until Sunday afternoon, when Waddill called
at Northup's room to express his apprehension
of difficulties they had not expected to encounter.
Bass had become alarmed, and had placed his
affairs in the hands of a person at the landing,
communicating to him his intention of leaving the
State. This person had betrayed the
confidence reposed in him to a certain extent, and a
rumor began to float about the town, that the
stranger at the hotel, who had been observed in the
company of lawyer Waddill, was after one of
old Epps' slaves, over on the bayou.
Epps was known at Marksville, having frequent
occasion to visit that place during the session of
the courts, and the fear entertained by Mr.
Northup's adviser was, that intelligence
would be conveyed to him in the night, giving him an
opportunity of secreting me be fore the arrival of
This apprehension had the effect of expediting mat-
ters considerably. The sheriff, who lived in one
direction from the village, was requested to hold
himself in readiness immediately after midnight,
while the Judge was informed he would be called upon
at the same time. It is but justice to say,
that the authorities at Marksville cheerfully
rendered all the assistance in their power.
As soon after midnight as bail could be perfected, and
the Judge's signature obtained, a carriage,
containing Mr. Northup and the
sheriff, driven by the landlord's son, rolled
rapidly out of the village of Marksville, on the
road towards Bayou Boeuf.
It was supposed that Epps would contest the
issue involving my right to liberty, and it
therefore suggested itself to Mr. Northup,
that the testimony of the sheriff, describing my
first meeting with the former, might perhaps become
material on the trial. It was accordingly
arranged during the ride, that, before I had an
opportunity of speaking to Mr. Northup,
the sheriff should propound to me certain questions
agreed upon, such as the number and names of my
children, the name of my wife before marriage, of
places I knew at the North, and so forth. If
my answers corresponded with the statements given
him, the evidence must necessarily be considered
At length, shortly after Epps had left the
field, with the consoling assurance that he would
soon return and warm us, as was stated in the
conclusion of the preceding chapter, they came in
sight of the plantation,
and discovered us at work.
Alighting from the carriage, and directing the
driver to proceed to the great house, with
instructions not to mention to any one the object of
their errand until they met again, Northup
and the sheriff turned from the highway, and came
towards us across the cotton field. We
observed them, on looking up at the carriage —one
several rods in advance of the other. It was a
singular and unusual thing to see white men
approaching us in that manner, and especially at
that early hour in the morning, and Uncle
Abram and Patsey made some remarks,
expressive of their astonishment. Walking up
to Bob, the sheriff inquired:
"Where's the boy they call Platt?"
"Thar he is, massa,"
answered Bob, pointing to me, and twitching
off his hat.
I wondered to myself
what business he could possibly have with me, ad
turning round, gazed at him until he had approached
within a step. During my long residence on the
bayou, I had become familiar with the face of every
planter within many miles; but this man was an utter
stranger - certainly I had never seen him before.
"Your name is Platt, is it?" he asked.
"Yes, master," I responded.
Pointing toward Northup, standing a few rods
distant, he demanded - "Do you know that man?"
I looked in the direction indicated, and as my eyes
rested on his countenance, a world of images
thronged my brain; a multitude of well-known faces -
and the dear children's, and my old dead father's;
all the scenes and associations of childhood and
youth; all the friends of other and happier days,
appeared and disappeared, flitting and floating like
dissolving shadows before the vision of my
imagination, until at last the perfect memory of the
man recurred to me, and throwing up my hands towards
Heaven, I exclaimed in a voice louder than I could
utter in a less exciting moment -
"Henry B. Northup! Thank God
- thank God!"
In an instant I comprehended the nature of his
business, and felt that the hour of my deliverance
was at hand. I started towards him, but the
sheriff stepped before me.
"Stop a moment," said he; "have you any other name than
"Solomon Northup is my name, master," I replied.
"Have you a family?" he inquired.
"I had a wife and three children."
"What were your children's names?"
"Elizabeth, Margaret and Alonzo."
"And your wife's name before her marriage?"
"Who married you?"
"Timothy Eddy, of Fort Edward."
"Where does that gentleman live?" again pointing to
Northup, who remained standing in the same place
where I had first recognized him.
"He lives in Sandy Hill, Washington county, New York,"
was the reply.
proceeding to ask further questions, but I pushed
past him, unable longer to restrain myself. I
seized my old acquaintance by both hands. I
could not speak. I could not refrain from
" Sol," he said at length, " I'm glad to see
you." I essayed to make some answer, but
emotion choked all utterance, and I was silent.
The slaves, utterly confounded, stood gazing upon
the scene, their open mouths and rolling eyes
indicating the utmost wonder and astonishment.
For ten years I had dwelt among them, in the field
and in the cabin, borne the same hardships, partaken
the same fare, mingled my griefs with theirs,
participated in the same scanty joys; nevertheless,
not until this hour, the last I was to remain among
them, had the remotest suspicion of my true name, or
the slightest knowledge of my real history, been
entertained by any one of them.
Not a word was spoken for several minutes, during which
time I clung fast to Northup, looking up into
his face, fearful I should awake and find it all a
"Throw down that sack," Northup added, finally,
"your cotton-picking days are over. Come with
us to the man you live with."
I obeyed him, and walking between him and the sheriff,
we moved towards the great house. It was not
until we had proceeded some distance that I had
recovered my voice sufficiently to ask if my family
were all living. He informed me he had seen
Anne, Margaret and Elizabeth but a
short time previously;
MEETING AT EPPS'
that Alonzo was still living,
and all were well. My mother, however, I could
never see again. As I began to recover in some
measure from the sudden and great excitement which
so overwhelmed me, I grew faint and weak, insomuch
it was with difficulty I could walk. The
sheriff took hold of my arm and assisted me, or I
think I should have fallen. As we entered the
yard, Epps stood by the gate, conversing with
the driver. That young man, faithful to his
instructions, was entirely unable to give him the
least information in answer to his repeated
inquiries of what was going on. By the time we
reached him he was almost as much amazed and puzzled
as Bob or Uncle Abram.
Shaking hands with the sheriff, and receiving an
introduction to Mr. Northup, he
invited them into the house, ordering me, at the
same time, to bring in some ,wood. It was some
time before I succeeded in cutting an armful,
having, somehow, unaccountably lost the power of
wielding the axe with any manner of precision.
When I entered with it at last, the table was strewn
with papers, from one of which Northup was
reading. I was probably longer than necessity
required, in placing the sticks upon the fire, being
particular as to the exact position of each
individual one of them.. I heard the words,
"the said Solomon Northup," and "the
deponent further says," and "free citizen of New
York," repeated frequently, and from these
expressions understood that the secret I had so long
retained from Master and Mistress Epps, was
finally developing. I lingered as long as pru-
SCENE IN THE COTTON FIELD, SOLOMON DELIVERED UP.
dence permitted, and was about leaving the room,
when Epps inquired,
"Platt, do you know this gentleman?"
"Yes, master," I replied, "I have known him as long as
I can remember."
"Where does he live?"
"He lives in New York."
"Did you ever live there?"
"Yes, master - born and bred there."
"You was free, then. Now you d--d nigger,"
he exclaimed, "why did you not tell me that when I
"Master Epps," I answered, in a somewhat
different tone than the one in which I had been
accustomed to address him - "Master Epps, you
did not take the trouble to ask me; besides, I told
one of my owners - the man that kidnapped me - that
I was free, and was whipped almost to death for it."
"It seems there has been a letter written for you by
somebody. Now, who is it?" he demanded,
authoritatively. I made no reply.
"I say, who wrote that letter?" he demanded again.
"Perhaps I wrote it myself," I said.
"You haven't been to Marksville post-office and back
before light, I know."
He insisted upon my informing him, and I insisted I
would not. He made many vehement threats
against the man, whoever he might be, and intimated
the bloody and savage vengeance he would wreak upon
him, when he found him out. His whole manner
and language exhibited a feeling of anger towards
the unknown person who had written for me, and of
fretfulness at the idea of losing so much property.
Addressing Mr. Northup, he swore if he
had only had an hour's notice of his coming, he
would have saved him the trouble of taking me back
to New York; that he would have run me into the
swamp, or some other place out of the way, where all
the sheriffs on earth couldn't have found me.
I walked out into the yard, and was entering the
kitchen door, when something struck me in the back.
Aunt Phebe, emerging from the back
door of the great house with a pan of potatoes, had
thrown one of them with unnecessary violence,
thereby giving me to understand that she wished to
speak to me a moment confidentially. Running
up to me, she whispered in my ear with great
" Lor a' mity, Platt! what d'ye think? Dem
two men come after ye. Heard 'em tell massa
you free — got wife and tree children back thar whar
you come from. Goin' wid 'em? Fool if ye
don't —wish I could go," and Aunt Phebe
ran on in this manner at a rapid rate.
Presently Mistress Epps made her
appearance in the kitchen. She said many
things to me, and wondered why I had not told her
who I was. She expressed her regret,
complimenting me, by saying she had rather lose any
other servant on the plantation. Had Patsey
that day stood in my place, the measure
of my mistress' joy would have
overflowed. Now there was no one left who
could mend a chair or a piece of furniture —no one
who was of any use about the house —no one who could
play for her on the violin—and Mistress Epps
was actually affected to tears.
Epps had called to Bob to bring up his
saddle horse. The other slaves, also,
overcoming their fear of the penalty, had left their
work and come to the yard. They were standing
behind the cabins, out of sight of Epps.
They beckoned me to come to them, and with all the
eagerness of curiosity, excited to the highest
pitch, conversed with and questioned me. If I
could repeat the exact words they uttered, with the
same emphasis—if I could paint their several
attitudes, and the expression of their countenances
—it would be indeed an interesting picture. In
their estimation, I had suddenly arisen to an
immeasurable height —had become a being of immense
The legal papers having been served, and arrangements
made with Epps to meet them the next day at
Marksville, Northup and the sheriff entered
the carriage to return to the latter place. As
I was about mounting to the driver's seat, the
sheriff said I ought to bid Mr. and Mrs. Epps
good bye. I ran back to the piazza where they
were standing, and taking off my hat, said,
"Good-bye, Platt," said Mrs. Epps,
"Ah! you d--d nigger," muttered Epps, in a
malicious tone of voice, "you needn't feel so cussed
tickled - you ain't gone yet - I'll see about this
business at Marksville to-morrow."
I was only a "nigger" and knew my place, but
felt as strongly as if I had been a white man, that
it would have been an inward comfort, had I dared to
have given him a parting kick. On my way back
to the carriage, Patsey ran from behind a
cabin and threw her arms about my neck.
"Oh? Platt," she cried, tears streaming
down her face, "you're goin' to be free - you're
goin' way off yonder, where we'll nebber see ye any
more. You've save me a good many whippins,
Platt; I'm glad you're goin' to be free - but
oh! de Lord, de Lord! what'll become
I disengaged myself from her, and entered the carriage.
The driver cracked his whip and away we rolled.
The driver cracked his whip and away we rolled.
I looked back and saw Patsey, with drooping
head, half reclining on the ground; Mrs. Epps
was on the piazza; Uncle Abram, and Bob,
and Wiley, and Aunt Phebe stood by the
gate, gazing after me. I waved my hand, but
the carriage turned a bend of the bayou, hiding them
from my eyes forever.
We stopped a moment at Carey's sugar house,
where a great number of slaves were at work, such an
establishment being a curiosity to a Northern man.
Epps dashed by us on horseback at full speed
—on the way, as we learned next day, to the "Pine
Woods," to see William Ford, who had
brought me into the country.
the fourth of January, Epps and his counsel,
the Hon. H. Taylor Northup, Waddill,
the Judge and sheriff of Avoyelles, and myself, met
in a room in the village of Marksville. Mr.
Northup stated the facts in regard to me, and
presented his commission, and the affidavits
accompanying it. The sheriff descried the
scene in the cotton field. I was also
interrogated at great length. Finally, Mr.
Taylor assured his client that he was
satisfied, and that litigation would not only be
expensive, but utterly useless. In accordance
with his advice, a paper was drawn up and signed by
the proper parties, wherein Epps acknowledged
he was satisfied of my right to freedom, and
formally surrendered me to the authorities of New
York. It was also stipulated that it be
entered of record in the recorder's office of
Mr. Northup and myself immediately
hastened to the landing, and taking passage on the
first steamer that arrived, were soon floating down
Red River, up which, with such desponding thoughts,
I had been borne twelve years before.
*See Appendix, C.
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