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TWENTY-EIGHTH THOUSAND
TWELVE YEARS A SLAVE

NARRATIVE
OF
SOLOMON NORTHRUP,
A CITIZEN OF NEW YORK,
KIDNAPPED IN WASHINGTON CITY IN 1841,
AND RESCUED IN 1853,
FROM A COTTON PLANTATION NEAR THE RED-RIVER
IN LOUISIANA

NEW YORK:
MILLER, ORTON & MULLIGAN,
25 PARK ROW, OPPOSITE ASTOR HOUSE,
AUBURN:
107 GENESEE STREET
1855

CHAPTER IX. - pg. 118

The Hot Sun - Yet bond - The Cords sink into my Flesh - Chapin's Uneasiness -
Speculation - Rachel, and her Cup of Water - Suffering increases - The Happiness of Slavery -
Arrival of Ford - He cuts the Cords which bind me, and takes the Rope from my Neck -
Miscry - The gathering of the Slaves in Eliza's Cabin - Their Kindness -
Rachel Repeats the Occurrences of the Day -
- Lawson entertains his Companions with an Account of his Ride
- Chapin's apprehensions of Tibeats - Hired to Peter Tanner - Peter expounds the Scriptures
- Descriptions of the Stocks

      As the sun approached the meridian that day it became insufferably warm.  Its hot rays scorched the ground.  The earth almost blistered the foot that stood upon it.  I was without coat or hat, standing bareheaded, exposed to its burning blaze.  Great drops of perspiration rolled down my face, drenching the scanty apparel wherewith I was clothed.  Over the fence, a very little way off, the peach trees cast their cool, delicious shadows on the grass.  I would gladly have given a long year of service to have been enabled to exchange the heated oven, as it were, wherein I stood, for a seat beneath their branches.  But I was yet bound, the rope still dangling from my neck, and standing in the same tracks where Tibeats and his comrades left me.  I could not move an inch, so firmly had I been bound.  To have been enabled to

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lean against the weaving house would have been a luxury indeed.  But it was far beyond my reach, though distant less than twenty feet.  I wanted to lie down, but knew I could not rise again.  The ground was so parched and boiling hot I was aware it would but add to the discomfort of my situation.  If I could have only moved my position, however slightly, it would have been relief unspeakable.  But the hot rays of a southern sun, beating all the long summer day on my bare head, produced not half the suffering I experienced from my aching limbs.  My wrists and ankles, and the cords of my legs and arms began to swell, burying the rope that bound them into the swollen flesh.
     All day Chapin walked back and forth upon the stoop, but not once approached me.  He appeared to be in a state of great uneasiness, looking first towards me, and then up the road, as if expecting some arrival every moment.  He did not go to the field, as was his custom.  It was evident from his manner that he supposed Tibeats would return with more and better armed assistance, perhaps, to renew the quarrel, and it was equally evident he had prepared his  mind to defend my life at whatever hazard.  Why he did not relieve me - why he suffered me to remain in agony the whole weary day, I never knew.  It was not for want of sympathy, I am certain.  Perhaps he wished Ford to see the rope about my neck, and the brutal manner in which I had been bound; perhaps his interference with another's property in

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which he had no legal interest might have been a trespass, which would have subjected him to the penalty of the law.  Why Tibeats was all day absent was another mystery I never could divine.  He knew well enough that Chapin would not harm him unless he persisted in his design against me.  Lawson told me afterwards, that as he passed the plantation of John David Cheney, he saw the three, and that they turned and looked after him as he flew by.  I think his supposition was, that Lawson had been sent out by Overseer Chapin to arouse the neighboring planters, and to call on them to come to his assistance.  He, therefore, undoubtedly, acted on the principle, that "discretion is the better part of valor," and kept away.
     But whatever motive may have governed the cowardly and malignant tyrant, it is of no importance.  There I still stood in the noon-tide sun, groaning with pain.  From long before daylight I had not eaten a morsel.  I was growing faint from pain, and thirst, and hunger.  Once only, in the very hottest portion of the day, Rachel, half fearful she was acting contrary to the overseer's wishes, ventured to me, and held a cup of water to my lips.  The humble creature never knew, nor could she comprehend if she had heard them, the blessings I invoked upon her, for that balmy draught.  She could only say, "Oh, Platt, how I do pity you," and then hastened back to her labors in the kitchen.
     Never did the sun move so slowly through the heavens - never did it shower down such fervent and

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fiery rays, as it did that day.  At least, so it appeared to me.  What my meditations were - the innumerable thoughts that thronged through my distracted brain - I will not attempt to give expression to.  suffice it to say, during the whole long day I came not to the conclusion, even once, that the southern slave, fed, clothed, whipped and protected by his master, is happier than the free colored citizen of the North.  To that conclusion I have never since arrived.  There are many, however, even in the Northern States, benevolent and well-disposed men, who will pronounce my opinion erroneous, and gravely proceed to substantiate the assertion with an argument.  Alas!  they have never drunk as I have, from the bitter cup of slavery.  Just at sunset my heart leaped with unbounded joy, as Ford came riding into the yard, his horse covered with foam.  Chapin met him at the door, and after conversing a short time, he walked directly to me.
     "Poor Plat, you are in a bad state," was the only expression that escaped his lips.
     "Thank God!" said I, "thank God, Master Ford, that you have come at last."
     Drawing a knife from his pocket, he indignantly cut the cord from my wrists, arms, and ankles, and slipped the noose from my neck.  I attempted to walk, but staggered like a drunken man, and fell partially to the ground.
     Ford returned immediately to the house, leaving me alone again.  As he reached the piazza, Tibeats

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and his two friends rode up.  A long dialogue followed.  I could hear the sound of their voices, the mild tones of Ford mingling with the angry accents of Tibeats, but was unable to distinguish what was said.  Finally the three departed again, apparently not well pleased.
     I endeavored to raise the hammer, thinking to show Ford how willing I was to work, by proceeding with my labors on the weaving house, but it fell from my nerveless hand.  At dark I crawled into the cabin, and laid down.  I was in great misery - all sore and swollen - the slightest movement producing excruciating suffering.  Soon the hands came in from the field.  Rachel, when she went after Lawson, had told them what had happened.  Eliza and Mary broiled me a piece of bacon, but my appetite was gone.  Then they scorched some corn meal and made coffee.  It was all that I could take.  Eliza consoled me and was very kind.  It was not long before the cabin was full of slaves.  They gathered round me, asking many questions about the difficulty with Tibeats in the morning - and the particulars of all the occurrences of the day.  Then Rachel came in, and in her simple language, repeated it over again - dwelling emphatically on the kick that sent Tibeats rolling over on the ground - whereupon there was a general titter throughout the crowd.  Then she described how Chapin walked out with his pistols and rescued me, and how Master Ford cut the ropes with his knife, just as if he was mad.

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     By this time Lawson had returned.  He had to regale them with an account of his trip to the Pine Woods - how the brown mule bore him faster than a "streak o'lightnin" - how he astonished everybody as he flew along - how Master Ford started right away - how he said Platt was a good nigger, and they shouldn't kill him, concluding with pretty strong intimations that there was not another human being in the wide world, who could have created such a universal sensation on the road, or performed such a marvelous John Gilpin feat, as he had done that day on the brown mule.
     The kind creatures loaded me with the expression of their sympathy - saying, Tibeats was a hard, cruel man, and hoping "Masa Ford" would get me back again.  In this manner they passed the time, discussing, chatting, talking over and over again the exciting affair, until suddenly Chapin presented himself at the cabin door and called me.
     "Platt," said he, "you will sleep on the floor in the great house to-night; bring your blanket with you."
     I arose as quickly as I was able, took my blanket in my hand, and followed him.  On the way he informed me that he should not wonder if Tibeats was back again before morning - that he intended to kill me - and that he did not mean he should do it without witnesses.  Had he stabbed me to the heart in the presence of a hundred slaves, not one of them, by the laws of Louisiana, could have given evidence against him.  I laid down on the floor in the "great

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 house" -  the first and the last time such a sumptuous resting place was granted me during my twelve years of bondage - and tried to sleep.  Near midnight the dog began to bark.  Chapin arose, looked from the window, but could discover nothing.  At length the dog was quiet.  As he returned to his room, he said,
     "I believe, Platt, that scoundrel is skulking about the premises somewhere.  If the dog barks again, and I am sleeping, wake me."
     I promised to do so.  After the lapse of an hour or more, the dog re-commenced him clamor, running towards the gate, then back again, all the while barking furiously.
     Chapin was out of bed without waiting to be called.  On this occasion, he stepped forth upon the piazza, and remained standing there a considerable length of time.  Nothing, however, was to be seen, and the dog returned to his kennel.  We were not disturbed again during the night.  The excessive pain that I suffered, and the dread of some impending danger, prevented any rest whatever.  Whether or not Tibeats did actually return to the plantation that night, seeking an opportunity to wreak his vengeance upon me, is a secret known only to wreak his vengeance upon me, is a secret known only to himself perhaps.  I thought then, however, and have the strong impression still, that he was there.  At all events, he had the disposition of an assassin - cowering before a brave man's words, but ready to strike his helpless or unsuspecting victim in the back, as I had reason afterwards to know.

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     At daylight in the morning, I arose, sore and weary, having rested little.  Nevertheless, after partaking breakfast, which Mary and Eliza had prepared for me in the cabin, I proceeded to the weaving-house and commenced the labors of another day.  It was Chapin's practice, as it is the practice of overseers generally, immediately on arising, to bestride his horse, always saddled and bridled and ready for him - the particular business of some slave - and ride into the field.  This morning, on the contrary, he came to the weaving-house, asking if I had seen anything of Tibeats yet.  Replying in the negative, he remarked there was something not right about the fellow- there was bad blood in him - that I must keep a sharp watch of him, or he would do me wrong some day when I least expect it.
     While he was yet speaking, Tibeats rode in, hitched his horse, and entered the house.  I had little fear of him while Ford and Chapin were at hand, but they could not be near me always.
     Oh!  how heavily the weight of slavery pressed upon me then.  I must toil day after day, endure abuse and taunts and scoffs, sleep on the hard ground, live on the coarsest fare, and not only this, but live the slave of a blood-seeking wretch, of whom I must stand henceforth in continued fear and dread.  Why had I not died in my young years - before God had given me children to love and live for!  What unhappiness and suffering and sorrow it would have prevented.  I sighed for liberty; but the bondman's

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chain was round me, and could not be shaken off.  I could only gaze wistfully towards the North, and think of the thousands of miles that stretched between me and the soil of freedom, over which a black freeman may not pass.
     Tibeats, in the course of half an hour, walked over to the weaving-house, looked at me sharply, then returned without saying anything.  Most of the forenoon he sat on the piazza, reading a newspaper and conversing with Ford.  After dinner, the latter left for the Pine Woods, and it was indeed with regret that I beheld him depart from the plantation.
     Once more during the day Tibeats came to me, gave me some order, and returned.
     During the week the weaving-house was completed - Tibeats in the meantime making no allusion whatever to the difficulty - when I was informed he had hired me to Peter Tanner, to work under another carpenter by the name of Myers.  This announcement was received with gratification, as any place was  desirable that would relieve me of his hateful presence.
     Peter Tanner, as the reader has already been informed, lived on the opposite shore, and was the brother of Mistress Ford.  He is one of the most extensive planters on Bayou Boeuf, and owns a large number of slaves.
     Over I went to Tanner's, joyfully enough.  He had heard of my late difficulties - in fact, I ascertained the flogging of Tibeats was soon blazoned far and wide.  This affair, together with my rafting experiment, had

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rendered me somewhat notorious.  More than once I heard it said that Platt Ford, now Platt Tibeats - a slave's name changes with his change of master - was "a devil of a nigger."  But I was destined to make a still further noise, as will presently be seen, throughout the little world of Bayou Boeuf.
     Peter Tanner endeavered to impress upon me the idea that he was quite severe, though I could perceive there was a vein of good humor in the old fellow, after all.
     "You're the nigger," he said to me on my arrival - "You're the nigger that flogged your master, eh?  You're the nigger that kicks, and holds carpenter Tibeats by the leg, and wallops him, are?  I'd like to see you hold me by the leg - I should.  You're a 'portant character - you're a great nigger - very remarkable nigger, ain't ye?  I'd lash you - I'd take the tantrums out of ye.  Jest take hold of my leg, if you please.  None of your pranks here, my boy, remember that.  Now go to work, you kickin' rascal," concluded Peter Tanner, unable to suppress a half-comical grin at his own wit and sarcasm.
     After listening to this salutation, I was taken charge of by Myers, and labored under his direction for a month, to his and my own satisfaction.
     Like William Ford, his brother-in-law, Tanner was in the habit of reading the Bible to his slaves on the Sabbath, but in a somewhat different spirit.  He was an impressive commentator on the New-Testament.  The first Sunday after my coming to the plantation,

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he called them together, and began to read the twelfth chapter of Luke.  When he came to the 47th verse, he looked deliberately around him, and continued - "And that servant which knew his lord's will," - here he paused, looking around more deliberately than before, and again proceeded - "Which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes."
    
"D'ye hear that?" demanded Peter, emphatically.  "Stripes, he repeated, slowly and distinctly, taking off his spectacles, preparatory to making a few remarks.
     "That nigger that don't take care - that don't obey his lord - that's his master - d'ye see? - that 'ere nigger shall be beaten with many stripes.  Now, 'many' signifies a great many - forty, a hundred, a hundred and fifty lashes.  That's Scripter~" and so Peter continued to elucidate the subject for a great length of time, much to the edification of his sable audience.
     At the conclusion of the exercises, calling up three of his slaves, Warner, Will and Major, he cried out to me -
     "Here, Platt, you held Tibeats by the legs' now I'll see if you can hold these rascals in the same way, till I get back from meetin'."
     Thereupon he ordered them to the stocks - a common thing on plantations in the Red River country.  The stocks are formed of two planks, the lower one

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made fast at the ends of two short posts, driven firmly into the ground.  At regular distances half circles are cut in the upper edge.  The other plank is fastened to one of the posts by a hinge, so that it can be opened or shut down, in the same manner as the blade of a pocket knife is shut or opened.  In the lower edge of the upper plank corresponding half circles are also cut, so that when they close, a row of holes is formed large enough to admit a negro's leg about the ankle, but not large enough to enable him to draw out his foot.  The other end of the upper plank, opposite the hinge, is fastened to its post by lock and key.  The slave is made to sit upon the ground, when the uppermost plank is elevated, his legs, just above the ankles, placed in the sub-half circles, and shutting it down again, and locking it, he is held secure and fast.  Very often the neck instead of the ankle is enclosed.  In this manner they are held during the operation of whipping.
     Warner, Will and Major, according to Tanner's account of them, were melon-stealing, Sabbath-breaking niggers, and not approving of such wickedness, he felt it his duty to put them in the stocks.  Handing me the key, himself, Myers, Mistress Tanner and the children entered the carriage and drove away to church at Cheneyville.  When they were gone, the boys begged me to let them out.  I felt sorry to see them sitting on the hot ground, and remembered my own sufferings in the sun.  Upon their promise to return to the stocks at any moment they were required  

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to do so, I consented to release them.  Grateful for the lenity shown them, and in order in some measure to repay it, they could do no less, of course, than pilot me to the melon-patch.  Shortly before Tanner's return, they were in the stocks again.  Finally he drove up, and looking at the boys, said, with a chuckle, -
     "Aha! ye havn't been strolling about much to-day, any way.  I'll teach you what's what.  I'll tire ye of eating water-melons on the Lord's day, ye Sabbath-breaking niggers."
     Peter Tanner prided himself upon his strict religious observances: he was a deacon in the church.
     But I have now reached a point in the progress of my narrative, when it becomes necessary to turn away from these light descriptions, to the more grave and weighty matter of the second battle with Master Tibeats, and the flight through the great Pacoudrie Swamp.

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