GENEALOGY EXPRESS

 

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History & Genealogy

STILL'S
UNDERGROUND RAIL ROAD RECORDS,

REVISED EDITION.
(Previously Published in 1879 with title: The Underground Railroad)
WITH A LIFE OF THE AUTHOR.
NARRATING
THE HARDSHIPS, HAIRBREADTH ESCAPES AND DEATH STRUGGLES
OF THE
SLAVES
IN THEIR EFFORTS FOR FREEDOM.
TOGETHER WITH
SKETCHES OF SOME OF THE EMINENT FRIENDS OF FREEDOM, AND
MOST LIBERAL AIDERS AND ADVISERS OF THE ROAD
BY
WILLIAM STILL,
For many years connected with the Anti-Slavery Office in Philadelphia, and Chairman of the Acting
Vigilant Committee of the Philadelphia Branch of the Underground Rail Road.

Illustrated with 70 Fine Engravings by Bensell, Schell and Others,
and Portraits from Photographs from Life.

Thou shalt not deliver unto his master the servant that has escaped from his master unto thee. - Deut. xxiii 16.

SOLD ONLY BY SUBSCRIPTION.

PHILADELPHIA:
WILLIAM STILL, PUBLISHER
244 SOUTH TWELFTH STREET.
1886

pp. 223 -

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FROM VIRGINIA, MARYLAND, DELAWARE, NORTH CAROLINA, WASHINGTON, D. C., AND SOUTH CAROLINA

JAMES BURRELL, DANIEL WIGGINS, WM. ROBINSON, EDWARD PEADEN, AND WIFE, ALEX. BOGGS, SAMUEL STATER, HARRISON BELL AND DAUGHTER, HARRIET ANN, DANIEL DAVIS, alias DAVID SMITH, JAMES STEWART, alias WILLIAM JACKSON, HARRIET HALEY, alias ANN RICHARDSON, BENJ. DUNCANS, alias GEORGE SCOTT, MOSES WINES, SARAH SMITH, alias MILDRETH PAGE, LUCY GARRET, alias JULIA WOOD, ELLEN FORMAN, alias ELIZABETH YOUNG, EM. WOODEN, alias WM. NELSON, JAMES EDWARD HANDY, alias DENNIS CANNON, JAMES HENRY DELANY alias SMART STANLEY, JAMES HENRY BLACKSON, GEORGE FREELAND, MILES WHITE, LOUISA CLAYTON, LEWIS SNOWDEN alias LEWIS WILLIAMS, WM. JOHNSON, JOHN HALL alias JOHN SIMPSON.

 
     
 
     
 
 
     
 
     
 
     

 

 

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on as quick as you can and let them know that there is a lady coming on by the name of mrs. Holonsworth and she will call and see you and you will find her a very interesting and inteligent person one worthy of respect and esteem and a high reputation I must now bring my letter to a close no more at present but remain your humble servant.
    PATTERSON SMITH

     In my letters I did not write to my friends how they shall write to me but i the letter that you write you will please to tell them how they shall write to me.

     HARRISON BELL and daughter, HARRIET ANN.  Father and daughter were fortunate enough to escape together from Norfolk, Va.
     HARRISON was just in the prime of life, forty years of age, stout made, good features, but in height was rather below medium, was a man of more than ordinary shrewdness, by trade he was a chandler.  He alleged that he had been used hard.
     HARRIET ANN was a well-grown girl of pleasant appearance, fourteen years of age.  Father and daughter had each different owners, one belong to James Snyder, the other to John G. Hodgson.
     Harrison had been informed that his children were to be sold; to prevent this shocking fate, he was prompted to escape.  /several months previous to finding a chance to make a safe flight, he secreted himself with his children in Norfolk, and so remained up to the day he left, a passage having been secured for them on one of the boats coming to Philadelphia.  While the records contain no definite account of other children, it is evident that there were others, but what became of them is not known.
     If at the time of their arrival, it had been imagined that the glorious day of universal freedom was only about eight years off, doubtless much fuller records would have been made of these struggling Underground Rail Road passengers.  If Harrison's relatives and friends, who suddenly missed him and his daughter Harriet Ann in the Spring of 1854, are still ignorant of his whereabouts, this very brief account of their arrival in Philadelphia,  may be of some satisfaction to all concerned, not excepting his old master, whom he had served so faithfully.
     The Committee finding them in need, had the pleasure of furnishing them with food, material aid and a carriage, with cheering words and letters of introduction to friends on the road to Canada.

DANIEL DAVIS, ALIAS DAVID SMITH, ADAM NICHOLSON, ALIAS JOHN WYNCOOP, REUBEN BOWLES, ALIAS CUNNIGAN, ARRIVED FROM HEDGEVILLE, VA.

     DANIEL was only about twenty, just at a capital age to make a bold strike for freedom.  The appearance and air of this young aspirant for liberty indicated that he was not of the material to be held in chains.  He was a man of medium size, well-built, dark color, and intelligent.  Hon. Charles J. Fortner, M. C. was the reputed owner of this young fugitive, but the honorable gentleman having no use for his services, or because he may

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have profited more by hiring him out, Daniel was placed in the employ of a farmer, by the name of Adam Quigley.  It was at this time he resolved that he would not be a slave any longer.  He declared that Quigley was a "very mean man," one for whom he had no respect whatever.  Indeed he felt that the system of Slavery was an abomination in any form it might be viewed.  While he was yet so young, he had pretty clear views with regard to Slavery, and remembered with feelings of deep indignation, how his father had been sold when he himself was a boy, just as a horse might have been sold; and how his mother was dragging her chains in Slavery, up to the hour he fled.  Thus in company with his two companions he was prepared for any sacrifice.

     ADAM'S tale is soon told; all that is on the old record in addition to his full name, is in the following words:  "Adam is dark, rugged and sensible, and was owned by Alexander Hill, a drunkard, gambler, &c.
     REUBEN had been hired out to John Sabbard near Hedgeville.  Startled at hearing that he was to be sold, he was led to consider the propriety of seeking flight via the Underground Rail Road.  These three young men were all fine specimens of farm hands, and possessed more than average common sense, considering the oppression they had to labor under.  They walked the entire distance from Hedgeville, Va., to Greenville, Pa.  There they took the cars and walked no more.  They appeared travel-worn, garments dirty, and forlorn; but the Committee had them cleanly washed, hair cut and shaved, change of clothing furnished &c., which at once made them look like very different men.  Means were appropriated to send them on free of cost.

     JAMES STEWART alias WM. JACKSON.  James had been made acquainted with the Peculiar Institution in Fauquier county, Va.  Being of sound judgment and firm resolution, he became an enemy to Slavery at a very early age; so much so, that by the time he was twenty-one he was willing to put into practice his views of the system by leaving it and going where all men are free.  Very different indeed were these notions, from those held by his owner, Wm. Rose, who believed in Slavery for the black man.  So as James could neither enjoy his freedom nor express his opinion in Virginia, he determined, that he had better get a passage on the Underground Rail Road, and leave the land of Slavery and the obnoxious sentiments of his master.  He, of course, saw formidable difficulties to be encountered all the way along in escaping, but these, he considered, would be more easy for him to overcome than it would be for him to learn the lesson - "Servants, obey your masters."  The very idea made James sick.  This therefore, was the secret of his escape.

     HARRIET HALEY, alias ANN RICHARDSON, and ELIZABETH HALEY, alias SARAH RICHARDSON.  These travelers succeeded in escaping from Geo. C. Davis of Harford county, Md.  In order to carry out their plans, of Harford county, Md.  In order to carry out their plans,

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they took advantage of Whitsuntide, a holiday, and with marked ingenuity and perseverance, they managed to escape and reach Quakertown Underground Rail Road Station without obstruction, where protection and assistance were rendered by the friends of the cause.  After abiding there for a short time, they were forwarded to the Committee in Philadelphia.  Their ages ranged from nineteen to twenty-one, and they were apparently "servants" of a very superior order.  The pleasure it afforded to aid such young women in escaping from a condition so loathsome as that of Slavery in Maryland, was unalloyed.

     BENJAMIN DUNCANS, alias GEORGE SCOTT.  This individual was in bonds under Thomas Jeffries, who was a firm believer in the doctrine: "Servants, obey your masters," and, furthermore, while laboring "pretty hard" to make Benjamin a convert to this idea, he had made Benjamin's lot anything else than smooth.  This treatment on the part of the master made a wise and resolute man of the Slave.  For as he looked earnestly into the fact, that he was only regarded by his owner in the light of an ox, or an ass, his manhood rebelled straightway, and the true light of freedom told him, that he must be willing to labor, and endure suffering for the great prize, liberty.  So, in company with five others, at an appointed time, he set out for freedom, and succeeded.  The others, alluded to, passed on to Canada direct.  Benjamin was induced to stop a few months in Pennsylvania, during which time he occupied himself in farming.  He looked as if he was well able to do a full day's work at this occupation.  He was about twenty-five years of age, of unmixed blood, and wore a pleasant countenance.

     MOSES WINESPortsmouth, Va., lost one of her most substantial laborers in the person of Moses, and Madam Abigail Wheeler, a very "likely article" of merchandise.  "No complaint" as to "ill treatment" was made by Moses against "Miss Abigail."  The truth was, he admitted, that he had been used in a "mild way."  With some degree of pride, he stated that he "had never been flogged."  But, for the "last fifteen years, he had been favored with the exalted privilege of 'hiring' his time at the 'reasonable' sum of $12 per month."  As he stood pledged to have this amount always ready, "whether sick or well," at the end of the mouth, his mistress "never neglected to be in readiness to receive it" to the last cent.  In this way Moses was taught to be exceedingly punctual.  Who would not commend such a mistress for the punctuality, if nothing more?  But as smoothly as matters seemed to be going along, the mischievous idea crept into Moses' head, that he ought to have some of the money claimed by his "kind" mistress, and at the same time, the thought would often forcibly press upon his mind that he might any day be sold.  In addition to this unpleasant prospect, Virginia had just about that time passed a law "prohibiting Slaves from hiring their time" - also, a number of "new Police rules with reference to Slaves

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and free colored people," all of which, the "humane Slave-holders" of that "liberal State," regarded as highly essential both for the "protection and safety of Master and Slave."  But the stupid-headed Moses was not pleased with these arrangements.  In common with many of the Slaves, he smarted severely under his heavy oppression, and felt that it was similar to an old rule, which had been once tried under Pharaoh - namely, when the children of Israel were required to "make bricks without straw."  But Moses was not a fit subject to submit to be ruled so inhumanly.
     Despite the beautiful sermons he had often listened to in favor of Slavery, and the many wise laws, about alluded to, he could not reconcile himself to  his condition.  The laws and preaching were alike as "sounding brass, and tinkling cymbals" to him.  He made up his mind, therefore, that he must try a free country; that his manhood required him to make the effort at once, even at the risk of life.  Father and husband, as he was, and loving his wife, Grace, and son, Alphonso, tenderly as he did, he nevertheless felt himself to be in chains, and that he could do but little for them by remaining.  He conceived that, if he could succeed in gaining his freedom, he might possibly aid them away also.  With this hope in him, he contrived to secure a private passage on the steamship City of Richmond, and in this way reached Philadelphia, but not without suffering fearfully the entire journey through, owing to the narrowness of the space into which he was obliged to be stowed in order to get away.
     Moses was a man of medium size, quite dark, and gave promise of being capable of taking care of himself in freedom.  He had seen much of the cruelties of Slavery inflicted upon others in various forms, which he related in a way to make one shudder; but these incidents were not recorded in the book at the time.

     SARAH SMITH alias MILDRETH PAGE, and her daughter, nine years of age.  Sarah and her child were held to service by the Rev. A. D. Pollock, a resident of Wilmington, Del.  Until about nine months before she escaped from the Reverend gentleman, she was owned by Mrs. Elizabeth Lee of Fauquier Co., Va., who had moved with Sarah to Wilmington.  How Mr. Pollock came by Sarah is not stated on the records; perhaps by marriage; be that as it may, it was owing to ill treatment from her mistress that Sarah "took out" with her child.  Sarah was a woman of becoming manners, of a dark brown complexion, and looked as though she might do a fair share of housework, if treated well.  As it required no great effort to escape from Wilmington, where the watchful Garrett lived, she reached the Committee in Philadelphia without much difficulty, received assistance and was sent on her way rejoicing.

     LUCY GARRETT, alias JULIA WOODJohn Williams, who was said to be a "very cruel man," residing on the Western Shore of Va., claimed

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Lucy as his chattel personal.  Julia, having a lively sense of his meanness stood much in fear of being sold; having seen her father, three sisters, and two brothers, disposed of at auction, she was daily on the lookout for her turn to come next.  The good spirit of freedom made the way plain to her by which an escape could be effected.  Being about nineteen years of age, she felt that she had served in Slavery long enough.  She resolved to start immediately, and did so, and succeeded in reaching Pennsylvania.  Her appearance recommended her so well, that she was prevailed upon to remain and acept a situation in the family of Joseph A. Dugdale, so well known in reformatory circles, as an ardent friend of humanity.  While in his family she gave great satisfaction, and was much esteemed for uprightness and industry.  But this place was not Canada, so, when it was deemed best, she was sent on.

     ELLEN FORMAN, alias ELIZABETH YOUNGEllen had formerly been owned by Dr. Thomas, of the Eastern Shore of Maryland, but about one year before escaping, she was bought by a lady living in Baltimore known by the name of Mrs. Johnson.  Ellen was about thirty years of age, of slender stature, and of a dark brown complexion.  The record makes no mention of cruel treatment or very hard usage, as a slave.  From traveling, probably, she had contracted a very heavy cold, which threatened her with consumption.  the Committee cheerfully rendered her assistance.

     WILLIAM WOODEN, alias WILLIAM NELSON.  While Delaware was not far from freedom, and while Slavery was considered to exist there comparatively in a mild form, nevertheless, what with the impenetrable ignorance in which it was the wont of pro-slavery whites to keep the slaves, and the unwillingness on the part of slave-holders generally to conform to the spirit of progress going on in the adjacent State of Pennsylvania, it was wonderful how the slaves saw through the thick darkness thus prevailing, and how wide-awake they were to escape.
     It was from this State, that William Wooden fled.  True, Williamwas said to belong to Judge Wooden, of Georgetown, Del., but, according to the story of his "chattel," the Judge was not of the class who judged righteously.  He had not only treated William badly, but he had threatened to sell him.  This was the bitter pill which constrained William to "take out."  The threat seemed hard at first, but its effect was excellent for this young man; it was the cause of his obtaining his freedom at the age of twenty-three.  William was a tall, well-built man, of dark complexion and promising.  No further particulars concerning him are on the records.

     JAMES EDWARD HANDY, alias DANIEL CANON.  At Seaford, Delaware James was held in bonds under a Slave-holder called Samuel Lewis who followed farming.  Lewis was not satisfied with working James hard and keeping all his earnings, but would insolently talk occasionally of handing him "over to the trader."  This "stirred James' blood" and aroused

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his courage to the "sticking point."  Nothing could induce him to remain.  He had the name of having a wife and four children, but according to the Laws of Delaware, he only had a nominal right in them.  They were "legally the property of Capt. Martin."  Therefore they were all left in the hands of Capt. Martin.  The wife's name was HARRIET DELANEY alias SMART STANLEY.  James Henry Delaney came as fellow-traveler with James Edward. He had experienced oppression under Capt. Martin, and as a witness, was prepared to testify, that Martin "ill-treated his Slaves, especially with regard to the diet, which was very poor."  Nevertheless James was a stout, heavy-built young man of twenty-six years of age, and looked as if he might have a great deal of valuable work in him.  He was a single man.

     JAMES HENRY BLACKSONJames Henry had only reached twenty-five, when he came to the "conclusion, that he had served long enough under bondage for the benefit of Charles Wright."  This was about all of the excuse he seemed to have for escaping.  He was a fine specimen of a man, so far as physical strength and muscular power were concerned.  Very little was recorded of him.

     GEORGE FREELAND.  It was only by the most indomitable resolution and perseverance, that Freeland threw off the yoke.  Capt. John Pollard of Petersburg, Va., held George to service.  As a Slave-holder, Pollard belonged to that class who did not believe in granting favors to Slaves.  On the contrary, he was practically in favor of wringing every drop of blood from their bodies.
     George was a spare-built man, about twenty-five years of age, quite dark, but had considerable intelligence.  He could read and write very well, but how he acquired these arts is not known.  In testifying against his master, George used very strong language.  He declared that Pollard "thought no more of his servants than if they had been dogs.  He was very mean.  He gave nothing to his servants.  He has given me only one pair of shoes the last ten  years."  After careful inquiry, George learned that he could get a private passage on the City of Richmond, if he could raise the passage money.  This he could do cheerfully.  He raised "sixty dollars" for the individual who has to "secrete him on the boat."  In leaving the land of Slave auctions, whips and chains, he was obliged to leave his mother and father and two brothers in Petersburg.  Pollard had been offered $1,500 for George.  Doubtless he found, when he discovered George had gone, that he had "overstood the market."  This was what produced action prompt and decisive on the part of George.  So the old adage, in this case, was verified - "It's an ill wind that blows nobody any good."
     On arriving in Canada, George did not forget to express gratitude to those who aided him on his road there, as the following note will show:

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    SINCATHANS, canada west.
     Brother Still: - I im brace this opportunity of pening you a few lines to in form you that I am well at present & in hopes to find you & family well also I hope that god Will Bless you & and your family & if I never should meet you in this world I hope to meet you in glory.  Remember my love to Brother Brown & tell him that I am well & hearty tell him to writ Thomas word that I am well at present you must excuse me I will Rite when I return from the west.
    GEORGE W. FREELAND.
     Send your Letters in the name of John Anderson.

     MILES WHITE.  This passenger owed service to Albert Kern, of Elizabeth City, N. C.  At least Kern, through the oppressive laws of that State, claimed Miles as his personal property.  Miles, however, thought differently, but he was not at liberty to argue the case with Kern; for on the "side of the oppressor there was strength."  So he resolved, that he would adopt the Underground Rail Road plan.  As he was only about twenty-one years of age, he found it much easier to close his affairs with North Carolina, than it would have been had he been encumbered with a family.  In fact, the only serious difficulty he had to surmount was to find a captain with whom he could secure a safe passage North.  To his gratification it was not long before his efforts in this direction were crowned with success.  A vessel was being loaded with singles, the captain of which was kind enough to allow Miles  to occupy a very secure hiding-place thereon.  In course of time, having suffered to the extent usual when so closely conveyed, he arrived in Philadelphia, and being aided, was duly forwarded by the Committee.

     JOHN HALL, alias JOHN SIMPSONJohn fled from South Carolina.  In this hot-bed of Slavery he labored and suffered up to the age of thirty-two.  For a length of time before he escaped, his burdens were intolerable; but he could see no way to rid himself of them, except by flight.  Nor was he by any means certain that an effort in this direction would prove successful.  In planning the route which he should take to travel North he decided, that if success was for him, his best chance would be to wend his way through North Carolina and Virginia.  Not that he hoped to find friends or helpers in these States.  He had heard enough of the cruelties of Slavery in these regions to convince him, that if he should be caught, there would be no sympathy or mercy shown.  Nevertheless the irons were piercing him so severely, that he felt constrained to try his luck, let the consequences be what they might, and so he set out for freedom or death.  Mountains of difficulties, and months of suffering and privations by land and water, in the woods, and swamps of North Carolina and Virginia, were before him, as his experience in traveling proved.  But the hope of final victory and his daily sufferings before he started, kept him from faltering, even when starvation and death seemed to be staring him in the face.  For several months he was living in dens and caves of the earth.

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     Ultimately, however, the morning of his ardent hopes dawned.  How he succeeded in finding a captain who was kind enough to afford him a secret hiding-place on his boat, was not noted on the records.  Indeed the incidents of his story were but briefly written out.  Similar cases of thrilling interest seemed almost incredible, and the Committee were constrained to doubt the story altogether until other testimony could be obtained to verify the statement.  In this instant, before the Committee were fully satisfied, they felt it necessary to make inquiry of trustworthy Charlestonians to ascertain if John were really from Charleston, and if he were actually owned by the man that he represented as having owned him, Dr. Philip Mazyck, by name; and furthermore, to learn if the master was really of the brutal character given him.  The testimony of thoroughly reliable persons, who were acquainted with master and slave, so far as this man's bondage in Charleston was concerned, fully corroborated his statement, and the Committee could not but credit his story; indeed they were convinced, that he had been one of the greatest of sufferers and the chief of heroes.  Nevertheless his story was not written out, and can only be hinted at.  Perhaps more time was consumed in its investigation and in listening to a recital of his sufferings than could well be spared; perhaps it was thought, as was often the case, unless full justice could be given him, the story would be spoiled; or perhaps the appalling nature of his sufferings rendered the pen powerless, and made the heart too sick for the task.  Whether it was so or not in this case, it was not unfrequently so in other instances, as is well remembered.  It will be necessary, in the subsequent pages of this work, to omit the narratives of a great many who, unfortunately, were but briefly noted on the books at the time of their arrival.  In the eyes of some, this may prove disappointing, especially in instances where these pages are turned to with the hope of gaining a clue to certain lost ones.  As all, however, cannot be mentioned, and as the general reader will look for incidents and facts which will most fittingly bring out the chief characteristics in the career and escape of bondsmen, the reasonableness of this course must be obvious to all.

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CHARLES GILBERT.

FLEEING FROM DAVIS A NEGRO TRADER, SECRETED UNDER A HOTEL, UP A TREE, UNDER A FLOOR, IN A THICKET, ON A STEAMER.

     In 1854 Charles was owned in the city of Richmond by Benjamin Davis, a notorious negro trader.  Charles was quite a "likely-looking article," not too black or too white, but rather of a nice "ginger-bread color." Davis was of opinion that this "artidcle" must bring him a tip top

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price.  For two or three months the trader advertised Charles for sale in the papers, but for some reason or other Charles did not command the high price demanded.
    While Davis was thus daily trying to sell Charles, Charles was contemplating how he might escape.  Being uncommonly shrewd he learned something about a captain of a schooner from Boston, and determined to approach him with regard to securing a passage.  The captain manifested a disposition to accommodate him for the sum of ten dollars, provided Charles could manage to get to Old Point Comfort, there to embark.  The Point was about one hundred and sixty miles distant from Richmond.
     A man of ordinary nerve would have declined this condition unhesitatingly.  On the other hand it was not Charles' intention to let any offer slide; indeed he felt that he must make an effort, if he failed.  He could not see how his lot could be made more miserable by attempting to flee.  In full view of all the consequences he ventured to take the hazardous step, and to his great satisfaction he reached Old Point Comfort safely.  In that locality he was well known, unfortunately too well known, for he had been raised partly there, and, at the same time, many of his relatives and acquaintances were still living there.  These facts were evidently well known to the trader, who unquestionably had snares set in order to entrap Charles should he seek shelter among his relatives, a reasonable supposition.  Charles had scarcely reached his old home before he was apprised of the fact that the hunters and watch dogs of Slavery were eagerly watching for him.  Even his nearest relatives, through fir of consequences had to hid their faces as it was from him.  None dare offer him a night's lodging, scarcely a cup of water, lest such an act might be discovered by the hunters, whose fiendish hearts would have found pleasure in neting out the most dire punishments to those guilty of thus violating the laws of Slavery.  The prospect if not utterly hopeless, was decided ly discouraging.  The way to Boston was entirely closed.  A 'reward of $200" was advertised for his capture.  For the first week after arriving at Old Point he entrusted himself to a young friend by the name of E. S.  The fear of the pursuers drove him from his hiding-place at the expiration of the week.  Thence he sought shelter neither with kinfolks, Christians, nor infidels, but in this hour of his calamity he made up his mind that he would try living under a large hotel for a while.  Having watched his opportunity, he managed to reach Higee hotel, a very large house without a cellar, erected on pillars three or four feet above the ground.  One place alone, near the cistern, presented some chance for a hiding-place, sufficient to satisfy him quite well under the circumstances.  This dark and gloomy spot he at once willingly occupied rather than return to Slavery.  In this refuge he remained four weeks.  Of course he could not live without food; but to

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communicate with man or woman would inevitably subject him to danger.  Charles' experience in the neighborhood of his old home left no ground for him to hope that he would be likely to find friendly aid anywhere under the shadow of Slavery.  In correspondence of these fears he received his food from the "slop tub," securing this diet in the darkness of night after all was still and quiet and around of hotel.  To use his own language, the means thus obtained were often "sweet" to his taste.
     One evening, however, he was not a little alarmed by the approach of an Irish boy who came under the hotel to hunt chickens.  While prowling around in the darkness he appeared to be making his way unconsciously to the very spot where Charles was reposing.  How to meet the danger was to Charles' mind at first very puzzling,  there was no time now to plan.  As quick as thought he feigned the bark of a savage dog accompanied with a furious growl and snarl which he was confident would frighten the boy half out of his senses, and cause him to depart quickly from his private apartment.  The trick succeeded admirably, and the emergency was satisfactorily met, so far as the boy was concerned, but the boy's father hearing the attack of the dog, swore that he would kill him.  Charles was a silent listener to the treat, and he saw that he could no longer remain in safety in his present quarter.  So that night he took his departure for Bay Shore; here he decided to pass a day in the woods, but the privacy of this place was not altogether satisfactory to Charles' mind; but where to find a more secure retreat he could not, - dared not venture to ascertain that day.  It occurred to him, however, that he would be much safer up a tree than hid in the bushes and undergrowth.  He therefore climbed up a large acorn tree and there passed an entire day in deep medication.  No gleam of hope appeared, yet he would not suffer himself to think of returning to bondage.  In this dilemma he remembered a poor washer-woman named Isabella, a slave who had charge of a wash house.    With her he resolved to seek succor.

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LIBERTY OR DEATH.

JIM BOW-LEGS, alias BILL PAUL.

     In 1855 a traveler arrived with the above name, who, on examination, was found to possess very extraordinary characteristics.  As a hero and ad-

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venturer some passages of his history were most remarkable.  His schooling had been such as could only be gathered on plantations under brutal overseers; - or while fleeing, - or in swamps, - in prisons, - or on the auction-block, etc.; in which condition he was often found.  Nevertheless in these circumstances his mind got well stored with vigorous thoughts - neither books nor friendly advisers being at his command.  Yet his native intelligence as it regarded human nature, was extraordinary.  His resolution and perseverance never faltered.  In all respects he was a remarkable man.  He was a young man, weighing about one hundred and eighty pounds, of uncommon muscular strength.  He was born in the State of Georgia, Oglethorpe county, and was owned by Dr. Thomas Stephens, of Lexington.  On reaching the Vigilance Committee in Philadelphia, his story was told many times over to one and another.  Hour after hour was occupied by friends in listening to the simple narrative of his struggles for freedom.  A very full account of "Jim," was forwarded in a letter to M. A. Shadd, the then Editress of the "Provincial Freeman."  Said account has been carefully preserved, and is here annexed as it appeared in the columns of the above named paper:
     "I must now pass to a third adventurer.  The one to whom I allude, is a young man of twenty-six years of age, by the name of 'Jim,' who fled from near Charleston, S. C.  Taking all the facts and circumstances into consideration respecting the courageous career of this successful adventurer for freedom, his case is by far more interesting than any I have yet referred to.  Indeed, for the good of the cause, and the honor of one who gained his liberty by periling his life so frequently: - shot several times, - making six unsuccessful attempts to escape from the far South, - numberless times chased by bloodhounds, - captured, imprisoned and sold repeatedly, - living for months in the woods swamps and caves, subsisting mainly on parched corn and berries, &c, &c., his narrative ought, by all means, to be published, though I doubt very much whether many could be found who could persuade themselves to believe one-tenth part of this marvellous story.
     Through this poor Fugitive was utterly ignorant of letters, his natural good sense and keen perception qualified him to arrest the attention and interest the heart in a most remarkable degree.
     His master finding him not available, on account of his absconding propensities, would gladly have offered him for sale.  He was once taken to Florida, for that purposes; but, generally, traders being wide awake, on inspecting him, would almost invariably pronounce him a 'd--n rascal,' because he would never fail to eye them sternly, as they inspected him.  The obedient and submissive slave is always recognized by hanging his head and looking on the ground, when looked at by a slave-holder.  This lesson Jim had never learned, hence he was not to be trusted.
     His head and chest, and indeed his entire structure, as solid as a rock, indicated that he was physically no ordinary man; and not being under the

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influence of the spirit of "non-resistance," he had occasionally been found to be a rather formidable customer.
     His father was a full-blooded Indian, brother to the noted Indian Chief, Billy Bowlegs; his mother was quite black and of unmixed blood.
     For five or six years the greater part of Jims time was occupied in trying to escape, and in being in prison for sale, to punish him for running away.
     His mechanical generous was excellent, so were his geographical abilities.  He could make shoes or do carpenter's work very handily, though he had never had the chance to learn.  As to traveling by night or day, he was always road-ready and having an uncommon memory, could give exceedingly good accounts of what he saw, etc.
     When he entered a swamp, and had occasion to take a nap he took care first to decide upon the posture he must take, so that if come upon unexpectedly by the hounds and slave-hunters, he might know in an instant which way to steer to defeat them.  He always carried a liquid, which he had prepared, to prevent hounds from scenting him, which he said had never failed.  As soon as the hounds came to the place where he had rubbed his legs and feet with said liquid, they could follow him no further, but howled and turned immediately.
     Quite a large number of the friends of the slave saw this noble-hearted fugitive, and would sit long and listen with the most undivided attention to his narrative - none doubting for a moment, I think, the entire truthfulness of his story.  Strange as his story was, there was so much natural simplicity in his manner and countenance, one could not refrain from believing him."

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SALT-WATER FUGITIVE

     This was an exceptional case, as this passenger did not reach the Vigilance Committee of Philadelphia, yet to exclude him on this account, would be doing an injustice to history.
     The facts in his case were incontestably established in the Philadelphia Register in April, 1854, from which the following thrilling account is taken;
     The steamship, Keystone State, which arrived at this port on Saturday morning, had just entered Delaware Bay, when a man was discovered secreted outside of the vessel and under the guards.  When brought from his hiding-place, he was found to be a Fugitive Slave, who had secreted himself there before the vessel left Savannah on Wednesday, and had remained in that place from the time of starting!
     His position was such, that the water swept over and around him almost constantly.  He had some bread in his pocket, which he intended for

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subsistence until he could reach a land of liberty.  It was saturated with sea-water and dissolved to a pulp.
     When our readers remember the high winds of Friday, and the sudden change to cold during that night, and the fact that the fugitive had remained in that situation for three days and nights, we think it will be conceded that he fully earned his liberty, and that the "institution," which was so intolerable that he was willing to run the risk of almost certain death to escape from it had no very great attractions for him.  But the poor man was doomed to disappointment.  The captain ordered the vessel to put into Newcastle, where, the fugitive, hardly able to stand, was taken on shore and incarcerated, and where he now awaits the order of his owner in Savannah.  The following additional particulars are from the same paper of the 21st.
     The Keystone State case. - Our article yesterday morning brought us several letters of inquiry and offers of contributions to aid in the purchase from his master of the unfortunate inmate of Newcastle jail.  In answer to the former, we would say, that the steamer Keystone State, left Savannah, at 9 A. M., last Wednesday.  It was about the same hour next morning that the men engaged in heaving lead, heard a voice from under the guards imploring help.  A rope was procured, and the man relieved from his dangerous and suffering situation.  He was well cared for immediately; a suit of dry clothes was furnished him, and he was given his share of the contents of the boat pantry.  On arriving at Newcastle, the captain had him placed in jail, for the purpose, as we are informed, of taking him back to Savannah.
     To those who have offered contributions so liberally, we answer, that the prospect is, that only a small amount will be needed - enough to fee a lawyer to sue out a writ of habeas corpus.  The salt water fugitive claims to be a free man, and a native of Philadelphia.  He gives his name as Edward Davis, and says that he formerly lived at No. 5 Steel's court, that he was a pupil in Bird's school, on Sixth St. above Lombard, and that he has a sister living at Mr. Diamond's, a distiller, on South St.  We are not informed why he was in Georgia, from which he took such an extraordinary means why he was in Georgia, from which he took such an extraordinary means to effect his escape.  If the above assertion be true, we apprehend little trouble in restoring the man to his former home.  The claim of the captain to take him back to Savannah, will not be listened to for a moment by any court.  The only claim the owners of the "Keystone State" or the captain can have on salt water Davis, is for half passenger fare; he came half the way as a fish.  A gentleman who came form Wilmington yesterday, assures us that the case is in good hands at Newcastle.

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FULL PARTICULARS OF THE ABDUCTION, ENSLAVING AND ESCAPE OF DAVIS, ATTEMPT TO REDUCE HIM TO SLAVERY AGAIN.

 
     
 
     
 
 
     
 
     
 
     

 

 

 

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COPY OF FIRST ORDER OF COMMITTMENT.

 

 

COPY OF DISCHARGE

     To Wm. R. Lynam, Sheriff of Newcastle county:  You will discharge ______ Davis from your custody, satisfactory proof having been made before me that he is a free man.                          JOHN BRADFORD, J. P.
    
Witnesses - Joanna Diamond, John H. Brady, Martha C. Maguire.

COPY OF ORDER OF RE-COMMITMENT.

     New Castle county, ss., the State of Delaware to Wm. R. Lynam, and to the Sheriff or keeper of the Common Jail of said county, Whereas _____ Davis hath this day been brought before, the subscriber, one of the Justices of the Peace, in and for the said county, charged upon the oath of Ro-

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bert Hardie with being a runaway slave, and also as a suspicious person, traveling without a pass, these are therefore to command you, the said Wm. R. Lynam, forthwith to convey and deliver into the custody of the said Sheriff, or keeper of the said jail, the body of the said Davis, and you the said Sheriff or receiver of the body of the said Davis into your custody in the said jail, and him there safely keep until he be thence delivered by due course of the law.
     Given under my hand and seal at New Castle this 21st day of March, A. D., 1854.
   

JOHN BRADFORD, J. P.

 
     
 
 
     
 
     

SAMUEL GREEN alias WESLEY KINNARD, August 28th, 1854.

TEN YEARS IN THE PENITENTIARY FOR HAVING A COPY OF UNCLE TOM'S CABIN.
 

     

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SAM GREEN.

 

 

 

 

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