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Source:  Washington City Weekly Gazette (Washington, DC)  Issue:  13  Page: 101
Dated:  Feb. 17, 1816
     The Baltimore Telegraphe, of the 8th instant, contains account of one Benjamin Walker, a free colored man, who follows the sea for a livelihood, having been arrested in that city as a runaway slave, and who, not being able on the instant to procure evidence of his freedom, was in danger of being, under the laws of Maryland, sold as a runaway slave.  The same law, we believe, prevails in this district.  The correspondent of the Telegraphe comments, at some length, and with considerable comments, at some length, and with considerable severity on the hardship of cases of this nature, the practice being quite common in that state.  At first view it certainly does appear unjust to accuse a man of being a runaway, without the least shadow of proof, and then to tell him for costs and charges which he has been no way instrumental in producing.  But if if we look a little further, it will, we think, be seen that there is a necessity for such a law, and such a practice, growing out of the system of slavery which prevails in the country.  Were the rule otherwise, society would be perpetually incommodated by runaways and outcasts.  The proper light in which to regard such cases is, not that the sufferer is arrested and sold merely on suspicion of his being a slave, but that he is thus punished for not having a pass, or certificate of his freedom.  "Servants by indenture, custom of the country, or hire, travelling, by land or water, ten miles from home, without a note from their master, &c. and persons travelling out of their own counties without a pass under the county seal, and not being sufficiently known, or able to give a good account of themselves to the magistrate before whom brought, were deemed runaways," at least a century ago, by the acts of the general assembly of Maryland.  No doubt abuses do take place under the law, from the ignorance or cupidity of some of the officers of justice; but that circumstance, which is common to almost every institution in human society, would not, we should suppose, justify its repeal.
Source: Liberator (Boston, MA)  Vol: II  Issue: 36  Page: 142
Dated: September 7, 1833
ALSO Published in:
Source:  Macon Weekly Telegraph (Macon, GA)  Vol. VII  Issue: 51  Page: 3
Dated: Sept. 18, 1833
[from the Journal of Commerce]
     Mrs. Mary Martin, who at present resides in this city, but who lived in New Orleans in the year 1830, purchased in the spring of that year, a slave named Jack, for whom she gave $550 to a negro dealer named Wollfolk.  The slave remained with her only a few weeks, when he ran away.  About the time that Mrs. Martin purchased the slave, a Spanish Gentleman came to board with her, who had a servant, a free man of color, named Antonio Delestia.  The morning that Jack ran away, this Antonion Delestia and his master sailed for Campeachy, and Mrs. Martin believed that her slave had accompanied them.  She accordingly caused ever possible search to be made at Campeachy, but in vain.  She never was able to obtain any tidings of her slave form that time until the beginning of the present month; a period of nearly three years; when she accidentally met him in this city.  Mrs. Martin obtained a warrant against him, brought him before the Recorder, and deposed to the facts we have narrated, which were corroborated by her daughter, Miss Agnes LindsayMrs. Martin deposed that she knew her slave from the time that he was a small boy, he could not possibly be mistaken as to his identity.  Jack was then examined, and swore that he was Antionio Delestia; that he was born in the West Indies; that his father was a Spaniard, and that he himself spoke nothing but Spanish until he was twenty years of age.  He further deposed that he had been on board a Mexican Man of War in the year 1828, and that on leaving her, he got a passport from the Lieutenant.  He stated that since the year 1828 he had lived nine months with private families in Philadelphia, and afterwards kept an oyster cellar under the Walnut street Theatre.  Mr. Wm. H. Wilder, who acted as attorney for Mrs. Martin, cross examined Jack and after asking a few questions desired him to answer a gentleman who now came forward and spoke Spanish.  Jack could not understand one word the gentleman said, neither could he understand Miss Lindsay, who addressed him in Spanish.  He was now desired to produce the passport which he said he got when quitting the Mexican Man of War.  He immediately produced the document in the year 1830 by the real Antonio Delestia, who could ot read himself, and requested her to read it in order that some other negroes might see that he was a freeman.  Mrs. Lindsay was cross examined and positively swore that the present document was the same which she had read in New Orleans in the year 1830 - she said she was able to identify it by some stains she pointed out in the paper.  Notwithstanding the positive testimony of Mrs. Martin and Miss Lindsay, Jack, still persisted in asserting himself to be Antonio Delestia, and his counsel moved that the cause should be put off from the 8th to the 22d inst. in order to enable Jack to bring witnesses from Philadelphia to prove his identity.  The Recorder consented to the motion, and the case stood over until Friday, when he was again brought forward.  Neither counsel nor witnesses appeared on the part of Jack, and the Recorder gave judgment, that Mrs. Martin had proved him to be her slave, and that he should be delivered up to her.  Jack is at present in prison until his mistress can remove him from this State which has habeas corpus she has received enjoins her to do with as little delay as possible.
     RUNAWAY SLAVE.  Some days since we published an account of a Runaway slave (Jack) who was ordered  by the Recorder to be restored to his mistress, Mrs. Martin.  The latter accordingly got a habeas corpus to remove him out of this State.  But before it could be acted on, a writ de homine replegiando was obtained by Robert Sedgwick, Esq., under which the slave is retained in Prison until the case can be finally settled by the Superior Court, to which an appeal has been made on behalf of the slave.  - Jour. of Com 30th ult.
Source: Enquirer (Richmond, VA) Vol: XXX  Issue: 36  Page: 2
Dated: Sept. 10, 1833
     RUNAWAY SLAVE - Some days since we published an account of a Runaway slave (Jack) who was ordered by the Recorder - to be restored to his mistress, Mrs. Martin.  The latter accordingly got a habeas corpus to remove him out of this State.  But before it could be acted on, a writ de homine replegiando was obtained by Robert Sedgwick, Esq. under which the slave is retained in Prison until the case can be finally settled by the Superior Court, to which an appeal has been made on behalf of the slave.  - N. Y. Standard.
Source:  Friends' Intelligencer - Vol. 18 - No.   - Pg. 280
Dated: First Month 1st, 1839
     Those good people of England, who for years have considered the slave trade " abolished" by a philanthropic British Parliament, are little aware of the uncomfortable modes of transportation which these " restrictions upon trade" have caused to be provided for the "loyal subjects" of the "monarchs" of Africa.  The number of slaves now imported may be less than formerly, but law has rather increased than diminished the aggregate of suffering.  I have examined a dozen or more sharp, rakish-looking vessels, lying in this port in various states of preparation for the "African trade."  One just arrived is a small schooner of 72 tons, formerly a Savannah pilot boat.  She embarked on the coast of Africa 154 negroes, and landed 114, forty having died during the passage of 40 days.—Like all the others, her water casks fill the entire hold, and are so proportioned, large ones being placed in the centre, and smaller ones tapered off on each side, that the upper side of all is upon a level, on which planks are laid to make a platform for the negroes.  The height between. the water casks and the deck is precisely thirty-four inches.  Positively this space, in which 154 negroes were crammed, does not appear large enough to accommodate a dozen good-sized hounds.  Negroes, it appears, stow close!  I learned the secret.  They are compelled to squat down and be packed one into the other like dozens of spnons.   It is the practice to bring all on deck every day to be washed and take air.  If women are taken on hoard, they are kept separate and parted from the crew.  Unfit vessels are employed, not from choice, but because it would not be safe to risk better to the chances of capture.  I have also examined a brie of 300 tons, built sharp as a wedge, with spars like a frigate.  Her side timbers are four inches square, (I could not find one in her whole length to exceed 4½ inches) and 12 to 15 inches apart, planking proportionably thin, no beams, and only a few small knees upon each side, nailed on.  She is said to be the fastest sailer upon the ocean. vHer water casks, spread on shore, are a curiosity—the centre tier being over five feet in diameter, and the extreme side casks not over fifteen inches.  I am told that the punishment of death to all arrested in this traffick would not stop it—which I can believe when I see men willing to cross the sea in such a basket-made craft.
     Thus, notwithstanding laws and treaties, the slave trade continues in its glory.  "Respectable" houses in Havana are openly engaged, and parties join in thousand dollar shares to fit out a "slaver" as an interesting gambling adventure.  One cargo safely landed pays for other entire losses.  They cannot be landed in this port, but are discharged upon the coast; the slaves come by land to market, two miles behind the city, and the vessel comes in empty, and ready for another voyage.  Government is most accommodating.  Ships of war receive written orders to capture all slavers, and private instructions to do no such thing, while the Governor's Aid, or some other worthy, pockets half a doubloon as his share of the spoils for each negro imported.  Really, your Boston girls should collect the petitions which lay on (or under) the table of Congress, and address them to the Captain General, who being a military man, will, perhaps, be more gallant than your trusty representatives.
     At the slave market, which I visited, I saw neither bolts, bars, chains, nor whips, but a clean, comfortable house, with a spacious yard, shaded by noble trees.  The negroes, in clean linen shirts and trowsers, and new Scotch caps, a prouder dress than they ever expected to wear, seemed quite happy.  They looked inquiringly towards me, as an expected purchaser, but not so anxiously as if I had been the purveyor of a King, looking out for a fat subject for a "royal" feast.  The African, like the European, notwithstanding the miseries of his transport, loses nothing in coming to America.  Still, in spite of this philanthropic idea, I wish the black race had been suffered to remain at home.—N. Y. Express.
Source:  Friends' Intelligencer - Vol. 19 - No.   - Pg. 302
Dated: Second Month 1st, 1839
     The State of Georgia has adopted the free banking law of the State of New-York, and appended to it a provision, which admits mortgages on human beings to constitute the requisite legal securities.  The Richmond Whig considers this a wise measure, as the extended liabilities and interests of Banking Institutions, will make people very careful how they interfere with the darling, domestic institution of slavery.  The principles of this system are so outrageous, that we are not surprised at any atrocities that proceed from it.
     A colored man named Chaney, arrived in this city about 13 years ago, and assumed the name of Sewall.  He has acquired a considerable amount of property, is a married man, and has several children.  A few days since, he was arrested as a slave, and on re fusing to pay $900 for his own body, he was about to be committed to jail.  As the spectators were leaving the police office, he mingled with them, with the air and carriage of a freeman, and passing unnoticed by the officers, his legs soon carried him out of sight; and we hope, out of the way of prowling kidnappers.  We should say this man was able to take care of himself.  What an absurdity it is for tyrants to rob the defenceless victims of their power of all incentives to industry, and then call them lazy.  It is to take away " the apple of the eye," and to scoff at the blindness of the sufferer.
Source:  Friends' Intelligencer - Vol. 20 - No.   - Pg. 231
Dated: Third Month 1st, 1839
     We stated, last month, that the State of Georgia had adopted the General Banking Law of this State, with an additional feature, pro viding that mortgages on slaves might constitute a part of the requisite legal securities ; and we took occasion to say, that such was the atrocious character of the system of American slavery, that we could not be surprised at any enormities which might proceed from it.  The following is an extract of a letter to the editor of the Philanthropist, a weekly paper, published at Cincinnati.  It is dated,
                                                                                      Washington, 31st January, 1839.
     0"Blow the trumpet upon every house-top. Run to and fro in the land. Let every man tell it to his neighbor, and women to their children," that on the 30th January, 1839, in the capital of the U. States, in sight of the halls of Congress, upwards of forty human creatures—men, women and children—persons of color—slaves— were taken from the slave prison in this city, (or rather the city hell, as it is sometimes not inaptly called) and marched off as property, to be shipped at Baltimore for the Southern market. 
     The order of march was, first, the baggage-wagon, with half-a-dozen negroes immediately behind, some apparently hanging upon it for support.  Next came ten or a dozen women, apparently with arms lashed two and two, but probably fastened together with irons.  Then followed the men, about thirty in number, chained together, two and two, by the wrists.  Both women and men marched two abreast; but whether a leading-chain passed through the middle or not, could not well be seen.  By the side of this mournful group, rode on horseback, a white man (or monster,) with a large loaded riding-whip in his hand, in the same manner in which drovers drive horses, mules, or hogs to market.  The procession passed in view of the halls of Congress. 
     On the 11th of Second Month, William Slade, member of the House of Representatives, offered the following preamble and resolutions, with reference to the facts detailed in the above:
     Whereas, on the 30th day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine, there were driven by the doors of the Capitol of the United States, in view of members of both Houses of Congress, thirty men chained and handcuffed, together with twenty women and children; and whereas there are circumstances which justify a strong suspicion that it was for no offense against the laws of the United States, or any of the States, that said men, women and children were chained, handcuffed and driven as aforesaid:  Therefore,
     Resolved, That a committee of seven members of this House be forthwith appointed to inquire and report:
     1. The authority under which the said men, women and children were thus chained, handcuffed and driven as aforesaid;
     2. Whether they were charged with the commission of crimes; and if so, of what crimes, and when and where committed;
     3. Whether they had been convicted of crimes; and if so, of what crimes, and by what tribunal convicted; and
     4. Whether the persons who chained, handcuffed and drove the said men, women and children, were officers of the United States, duly authorized to have the custody of criminals within the District of Columbia; and if so, whether they committed said men, women and children to the common jail of said District for trial, or to the penitentiary thereof for punishment.
     Resolved, That said committee be authorized to send for persons and papers, and to report to this House by bill or otherwise.
     Objection was made to the reception of these resolutions—but the point was not decided, the resolutions lying over one day.
     The correspondent of the New York Courier and Enquirer, says:
     "I witnessed the scene to which Mr. Slade's resolution referred, and although I have frequently witnessed similar spectacles, and have seen much of slavery at home and abroad, I confess that it disgusted and sickened my soul.  I am as zealously opposed to madcap abolition as any man can be; but when 1 see slavery displayed in its most abhorrent features, at the gates of the Capitol, and beneath the flowing bunting of the American flag, the proud emblem of liberty, I cannot but revolt at the spectacle."
     Such horrors as these sicken the heart of humanity.  The page of American history is already stained with the record.—It can never be effaced. It will go down to the future, a bloody memorial of the reckless, unfeeling and abandoned character of our politicians, who will labor night and day for months, about sub-treasuries and paper money, and bestow scarcely a thought on the untold miseries, pains, and tortures of the three millions of human beings who dwell in our midst. Reader, hast thou the feelings of a man, and dost thou turn away from the recital?  We know how prejudice may blind the moral vision; we know what fearful tribute it claims —how it violates the tenderest charities of our nature—how it wan tons in all that is good and virtuous;—but, reader, if thou hast one spark of vitality in thy soul, thou hast already banished all inferior considerations, and thy heart bleeds for the wrongs of thy fellow creatures.
     We cannot, and we shall not cease to hold up the system of American slavery to the execration of the world.  It presents such unparalleled and complicated wickedness, and withal is so marked by the cunning plausibilities of its hirelings, that we should deem ourselves treacherous to everything good in word, thought or action, were we to pass it by untouched.
Source:  Sun (Baltimore, MD) Vol.: V  Issue: 143  Page: 2
Dated Oct. 31, 1839
RUNAWAY SLAVE - A black man, arrested the other day at Westchester, Pa., confessed himself to be a runaway slave, from Loudon county, Va., and some of his colored brethren were silly enough to threaten to rescue him.
Source:  Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA) Page: 2
Dated: Nov. 11, 1840
     A RUNAWAY SLAVE ARRESTED. - Washington, a good looking mulatto man, a slave of the late Mr. Davis, of Orleans street, and now of his syndic, was yesterday brought up before Recorder Bertus as a runaway slave.  Washington ran away from his master some six years ago, and has been in most of the Northern states, where he passed off for a free man. - He was arrested on board the Atlanta, of which he was steward.  Forged papers, or free papers fraudulently obtained, were founds in his possession; they were dated 6th July, 1830, signed William Milnor, Mayor of Philadelphia, and in favor of "bearer, Richard Phillips," under which assumed name Washington passed.  He is for the present, at the request of his master, sent to the calaboose.
Source:  Commercial Advertiser (New York, NY)  Vol.: XLIV  Page: 2
Dated: June 25, 1841
A slip from our Newport, R. I., correspondent, has the following:-
     Brig Relief, (of Cherryfield,) Strout, from Norfolk for St. John, N. B., put in to land a slave (who had secreted himself on board at Norfolk) in order to send him back to his owner.  The name of the slave is Mansfield Jackson, and we are informed he is owned by a widow lady.  His guardian's name is Archibald Allen, of SuffolkWe learn that Jackson had assisted in loading the brig, and that she had been at sea 7 days before he was discovered, he having provided himself with provisions and water.  The brig arrived here late in the afternoon, too late to accomplish the captain's object; he therefore tied the slave, and retired for the night; but the watch on deck having got asleep, the negro loosed his cords, stole the boat and landed on Goat Island, from thence he was conveyed over to town by the person having charge of the fort.  We learn that the blacks have taken him in charge, and have contributed money and clothes to his relief, and would convey him to New Bedford.  Jackson says he has a wife in New York.
Source:  Sun (Baltimore, MD)  Vol.: XII  Issue: 78  Page: 2
Dated: February 16, 1843
RUNAWAY SLAVES. - The Norfolk papers state that the packet schooner Empire, Capt. Powell, which sailed from that port for New York on Wednesday last, returned to port on Saturday morning, with two runaway slaves, who were found concealed in the vessel.  An examination placed the guilt of concealment on the steward of the packet, who was of course committed to prison.  The steward's name is James D. Lane, and he is a resident of Albany.  He stands a fair chance of having a birth in the penitentiary for some time to come.
Source:  Rondout Freeman (Kingston, NY) Vol. II  Issue: 16  Page: 2
Dated:  November 7, 1846
THE RUNAWAY SLAVE CASE.  - No little excitement has been created in the city of New York by a fugitive slave case before its tribunals, which we briefly noticed in the Freeman.  Indeed all who were acquainted with the affair felt a strong interest, and town and country, even on the verge of an election, were anxious to become better acquainted with the operation of the laws respecting fugitives from bondage.
     George, the fugitive, was brought before a magistrate by writ of habeas corpus and promptly discharged from custody. - Subsequently he was arrested on a Mayor's warrant (after the captain of the brig in which he escaped had made fruitless applications to the judicial functionaries of the county courts) for, we believe, stealing the clothes he wore.  Notwithstanding every effort by Southern men in New York and their friends an counsel, the fugitive is again free, by the interpretation of the laws, and will not, we presume, be again captured.  But it would seem that George is free rather because the right of the captain to reclaim him was questionable, than from any recognition of the great principle that no slave coming into New York, whether fugitive or otherwise, is free. - What the result would have been in the law courts, had his quondam master made his appearance in person to demand the runaway, we can only conjecture; but from the feeling manifested there is little reason to doubt but that a popular outbreak would have practically reversed any decision tending to his reconveyance to servitude.
     One good result springs from a case of this kind.  People will reflect upon the terms of the compact with the South. - Whilst the men of the North will refrain from any legislative interference with their "peculiar institutions," they will yet mark their deep abhorrence of the system by refusing to rivet the chains again upon any fugitive who may find a way to free soil even though he be claimed by his master.
     This will be recognized as the true principal hereafter, whatever may be the bearings of decisions, or the interpretations of counsel..
Source:  Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, D. C.) Vol.: XXXVIII  Issue: 11683  Page: 4
Dated:  August, 10, 1850
     The police of this city succeeded on Thursday night, after a severe conflict, in arresting a white man named William L. Chaplin, and a runway slave named Allen, the former being in the act of conveying the slave who was captured, and another named Garland, who made his escape, out of the District and the ownership of their masters, towards a free State.
     The police officers having watched the movements of Chaplin, and seen him leave the city about ten o'clock in a carriage, which he drove himself, traced him to a point on the Montgomery road near the residence of Francis P. Cox, and Captain Goddard, attempted to stop the carriage, in which were the two runaway negroes.  On the attempt being made by Mr. W. Smithia, who accompanied the officers, to seize the reins held by Chaplin, the latter fired a pistol ball at Smithia, which passed through his hat, without injuring him.  With the aid of Mr. Richard Butt, who also accompanied the officers, Chaplin was secured, after a desperate resistance.  The runaways in the carriage having each a revolver, fired several times at the officers, who also fired at the negroes.  Not less than twenty-seven shots were fired, and the fight continued for five or six minutes.
     The captured negro was slightly wounded in the back, and would undoubtedly have been killed had not a bullet lodged in his watch, and so protected him fro a deadly shot.  It is wonderful that none of the officers were killed, or seriously injured.  Mr. Butt was slightly wounded in the arm.  Neither officers Wollard, Handy, Davis, Cox, or Capt. Goddard was injured.  The firing was altogether in the dark; there were, however, nine bullet holes in the carriage.  It was supposed that Garland, the negro who made his escape, was severely if not mortally wounded; but we learned at ten o'clock last night that he was only wounded in his hand, and it was probable he would give himself up in the course of last night.  Allen and the abductor, Chaplin, were both committed to jail yesterday by Justice Goddard.  We understand that Chaplin has resided in this city for the last two years; he is a man of education, and is said to be from the State of New York.
Source:  Massachusetts Spy (Worcester, MA)  Vol: LXXXIV  Issue: 7  Page: 2
Dated:  February 14, 1855
     RUNAWAY SLAVES - The Underground Railroad - The travel over the underground railroad for the past few days, has been, we are informed, unusually active, and no fewer than seven lots of runaway slaes hae arrived at this terminus within a week.  The first of these lots was composed of three men; the next of three men; the third of two men; the fifth of one man.  All these were from Kentucky.  The lot was composed of two middle-aged, stout men, who had come on foot from Louisiana to this place, sleeping by day, and walking towards the North star at night.  They arrived here on Wednesday, and after recruiting, are to be sent over the underground railroad to Canada.
     The last lot was composed of a mother and three children, who came up on the mail-boat from Louisville, and were to be taken to Paris, Kentucky.  She managed to get to some abolitionists, and was immediately sent North. -  The total loss to the masters, from the escape of these fifteen slaves, must exceed fifteen thousand dollars.
     A colored woman named Johanna Piles, is now in Cincinnati, soliciting funds to purchase her husband, who is a slave in Washington County, Kentucky.  The wife and two children, with sixteen others, were manumitted about a year since, by their mistress, who then resided in Washington County, Kentucky, but located those she set free in Iowa.
- Cincinnati Columbian, Jan. 29.
Source:  Commercial Advertiser (New York, NY) Page: 1
Dated:  December 29, 1858
     A DEPUTY SHERIFF AND POLICE JUDGE IN PURSUIT OF A RUNAWAY SLAVE - Madame Ramor? circulated a report about noon yesterday, that the good brig William Purrington, from Wilmington, N. C. was lying in the narrows, in Boston harbor, having on board a runaway slave.  Arrangements were at once made by some zealous friends of freedom for a rescue, and a trip over the underground railroad.  A writ of habeas corpus was forthwith procured, and placed in the hands of Deputy Sheriff Francis O. Irish.  Mr. Deputy Irish, accompanied by Judge Russell, and some dozen other friends of the slave, chartered a yacht, proceeded down the harbor, and boarded the William Purrington, and made known their "errand of mercy" to the captain.  The captain listened calmly and patiently.  He replied that there was no runaway nigger on board until the night of Sunday last, when he was suddenly missing soon after coming to anchor in the narrows.  The captain presumed the fellow swam ashore with the aid of a plank, which was also missing from the deck of the vessel.  During some further conversation the captain remarked that he had made up his mind to blow the nigger's brains out if any one came on board to molest him, as it was a hanging offence out South to carry on a nigger.  The Judge coolly informed the Captain that it was a hanging offence at the North to blow a nigger's brains out.  The cruisers made up their minds that they had undertaken their trip to no purpose, and bidding the Captain good evening, they started on their return trip, arriving home about midnight. - Boston ___ing Journal, 28th 
Source:  Lowell Daily Citizen and News (Lowell, MA) Vol. IX  Issue: 1004  Page: 2
Dated: Aug. 6, 1859
A RUNAWAY SLAVE.  The Manchester Mirror of Wednesday afternoon has the following particulars in regard to the trip through New England of the runaway slave mentioned yesterday:
     A slave by the name of "Bill" says he has lived in Louisiana, and about a year and a half ago he went to the St. Charles Hotel, New Orleans, to work.  A short time since he conceived the noble idea of visiting the land of freedom, in the regions towards the North Star.  He got on board a vessel bound for New York, and secreted himself three days and nights without food or drink.  Then he made his appearance, and was harshly talked to at first by the captain, but afterwards was treated kindly enough.  Arriving at New York, he was kindly received by benevolent men who learned his condition, and $6 were given him to buy a passage to Boston.  He used only $2 of it on the way, and at Boston a negro took the money and played possum on him a little.  He gave him a ticket, as "Bill" supposed good, through to Canada, and really good only for Lawrence, and a piece of paper.  He told him not to show the paper till he got into the cars, and then stick it into the front part of his cap, where the conductor could see it.  On the paper marked "Fugitive Slave."  The conductor told him he was a fool to carry it there.  He found no difficulty in getting from Lawrence to Concord, this State.  There it was ascertained that the slave's master, one answering his description, was near at hand, no farther off, at least, than White River Junction.  By hook or crook (considerable crook) he was smuggled down to this city, where he spent the day quietly yesterday, in a certain place, where a new suit of clothes was given him, and at a proper time was started off in a proper direction, and is ere this pretty safe from pursuers.
Source:  Standard (Clarksville, TX) Page: 1
Dated: June 1, 1861
AN ACT providing for the disposition of runaway slaves.
     SECTION 1.  Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Texas, That it is here by made the duty of the Sheriffs of the different counties of this State, as early as possible after the commitment of any runaway slaves to cause an advertisement to be published in a newspaper printed nearest the county, or in the newspaper having the largest circulation in the county where the commitment is made, at the discretion of the Sheriff; in which shall be embraced a minute description of such runaway slave, and any other circumstances calculated to lead to the discovery of the slave by his owner, and if, after such advertisement for the space of six months, the owner should not apply for, prove and take out of jail such slave paying such expenses as are now allowed by law, together with the expense of advertising herein provided for, the Sheriff shall then convey and deliver such runaway slave to the keeper of the State Penitentiary, and the Sheriff shall at the same time deliver to the financial agent of the Penitentiary a certificate from the Justice of the Peace who committed such runaway slave to jail, the amount of charges legally incurred in apprehending and securing such runaway slave, and to whom the same is due.
     SEC. 2.  The Sheriff shall be allowed ten cents per mile in going to and returning from the Penitentiary, as a full compensation for conveying such runaway slave thereto, an account of which he shall file with the financial agent.
     SEC. 3.  If any Sheriff shall fail to convey any runaway slave to the Penitentiary at the expiration of six months from the time of commitment to jail, such Sheriff shall not make any charge for maintaining said runaway slave after that time.
     SEC. 4.  It shall be the duty of the keeper of the Penitentiary to receive such runaway slave into custody, and him safely keep, and cause an advertisement to be inserted in the newspaper published by the S. printer, describing the runaway slave, and the name of the person to whom he is supposed to belong, for the space of six months, or until such runaway slave is legally claimed and taken away; and if the owner shall fail either in person or by agent to come forward and prove property in such slave, the advertisement shall be discontinued, but the slave shall continue in the charge and service of the keeper of the Penitetiary for life;
     Provided that the owner may at least at any future period, come forward and prove property, pay the expenses which have accrued up to the time of the delivery of the slave to the keeper of the Penitentiary, and take the slave away.
     SEC. 5.  Whenever any runaway slave shall be delivered to the keeper of the Penitentiary under the provisions of this act he shall certify the same to he Comptroller of Public Accounts, who, upon presentation of such certificate, together with the properly authenticated account of the expenses which may have accrued from the apprehension and confinement of such slave up to the time of the delivery to the keeper of the Penitentiary, shall issue his warrant, for the amount shall be paid out of any money in the Treasury of the State, not otherwise appropriated.
     SEC. 6.  The keeper of the Penitentiary shall not allowed to make any charge for receiving, keeping, or feeding any runaway slave committed to his custody, but such slave shall be put to labor as other prisoners.
     SEC. 7.  Before any runaway slave in custody by virtue of this act shall be delivered up to any person claiming the same, such claimant shall first prove by affidavit of some disinterested witness, that such climant has lost such a slave as the one described in the advertisement; second, that the runaway is the one he lost; third, pay all expenses incurred in apprehending, securing, receiving, maintaining and advertising such runaway.  The keeper of the Penitentiary shall deliver any runaway to the owner or his agent upon his or their complying with the foregoing requisitions, and up on bond and security being given, should it be required by the keeper, to indemnify the keeper; and the financial agent shall demand and receive all expenses incurred in the apprehension, recovery, maintaining and advertising such runaway, which amount shall be paid into the State Treasury.
     SEC. 8.  The legally authorized agent of any person claiming a runaway slave, may claim, prove and receive such runaway in like manner as the owner if enabled to do by this act.
     Approved April 8, 1861.


     AN ACT to authorize and require the Commissioner of the General Land Office to issue patents out of the regular order in which they were filed in the Land Office.
SEC. 1.  Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Texas, That the Commissioner of the General Land Office is authorized and required to patent surveys out of the regular order of application; Provided such surveys shall have been regularly mapped, or there be sufficient evidence that no previous survey legally filed in the Land Office covering the same ground as represented on the maps of the office.
     SEC. 2.  That this act take effect from and after is passage.
     Approved April 8, 1861.

Source:  Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA)  Page: 8
Dated: Aug. 13, 1888
Once used as a Hiding Place by Runaway Slaves
     In the lower part of this county is a cave on the "Mike Mixon" place, a short distance from the mill, which bears an interesting history.  It was the home of runaway slaves and had been dug by them until its subterranean spaciousness would house a regiment.  From their hiding place the fugitives would emerge at night and make organized invasions on the larders, chicken coops and stock pens of the neighboring planters.  Their depredations had about thrown the entire community into a panic, when a young fox hound, that had run with hounds on the trail of runaway negroes, happened across the scent and followed it to the cave.  When some of the whites of the neighborhood went in answer to his loud baying they found the cause to be the cornering of seven runaway darkeys.
Source:  Columbus Daily Enquirer (Columbus, Georgia)  Vol. XXX  Issue: 272  Page: 1
Dated:  Aug. 18, 1888

Armed Negroes Occupy a Colored Minister's House in His Absence and Murder a White an - They Pay Very Dearly for It.

     NEW ORLEANS, August 17 - A dispatch from New Iberia says that F. P. Smith was buried to-day with military and civic honors.  The trouble of yesterday grew out of a spirit of revenge on the part of the negroes.  The better element of this and neighboring parishes had found it impossible longer to tolerate a certain class of idle and immoral characters and had ordered them from various places.  Many found refuge at Freetown, a small village composed entirely of negro families.  There they told their stories to their friends and nursed their anger.
     On Monday last reports reached this place that the negroes were arming and congregating at Freetown.  Their number was estimated at from five hundred to six hundred mounted men.  On Tuesday they were reinforced sufficiently to double their number.  Feeling their strength, they assumed a threatening attitude boldly declaring that refugees should not leave the parish and should not be molested.  On Wednesday the number of armed negroes further increased and people of the surrounding country began to feel some alarm lest these negroes over estimating their strength, might attempt some act of violence.
     On Thursday matters had not improved up to noon.  By this time residents and property owners of this section began to collect at points a short distance from Freetown, their object being to disperse these negroes without violence and to send those who did not belong their to their homes.


     Citizens rode into Freetown and found as rumored, a large number of armed negroes quartered there.  They asked the meaning of this, and the negroes were silent.  They demanded the surrender of the negroes arms, promising that when they learned to behave themselves, the arms would be returned.
     The negroes were ordered to at once disperse.  The great majority of them accepted the terms and surrendered their arms, which were found without one exception to be loaded with ball or buckshot.  Rev. H. Nora, a colored minister, left Freetown in the morning to attend a conference of ministers at New Iberia.
     During his absence his residence was taken possession of by a number of armed negroes.  This house they refused to surrender, returning word they were there to be taken.  The whites then sent a messenger to the house saying they would give them twenty minutes in which to lay down their arms.  The negroes again refused.


     In this house, situated a short distance from the main road or street, about fifteen negroes were quartered, among the number their leaders.  A squad of mounted white citizens were someone hundred and fifty yards from the house, awaiting the expiration of the twenty minutes before time was up.  The door of the house was thrown upon and a volley fired at them.  One horse was wounded.  Immediately firing became general and the door of the house was closed, but a constant fire was kept up from the windows for quite an interval.  Later firing was carried on by both sides, lasting in all nearly an hour and a half.  At this time E. P. Smith broke from his lines and made for the house.  His comrades implored him to return, but, deaf to their entreaties he went on to the house door, where he was fired upon and he fell.  At his side was a comrade who had followed him on his fatal errand.  When Smith fell his comrade returned, escaping unhurt.  At this stage of the fight the negroes became panic-stricken and attempted to flee from the house.  The deadly work was so closed.


     When the fight was over the bodies of eight negroes were found in the house and five others were found outside.  It is reported that three or four more were killed.  It is thought by some that a few made their escape, but others who were at the scene deny this.  A coroner's jury was empannelled and proceeded to Freetown to view the remains of the negroes.  They returned to-night having deferred the taking of testimony until a latter date.  The negroes who surrendered were not harmed in any way.

Source:  Kalamazoo Gazette (Kalamazoo, Michigan)  Page: 1
Dated:  May 20, 1893
     A Married Man Severely Hammered.
     A colored barber and a married man who is the father of a half dozen or more children had a narrow escape from death and received a justly deserved chastising a few nights since.  He had been paying too much attention to the daughter of a colored man who lives on the east side of the father of the girl feared that his visits were for no good and concluded to put a stop to them.  He secreted himself in the house and awaited developments.  He did not have to wait long when he was convinced that it was time to wade in.  The first round ended in a knock down for the father who broke his umbrella over the intruder's head.  Large bunches rose on the intruder's head and the same were increased in number and size by a second attack which occurred on the railroad track.  The father who did the chastising did not want the affair to get in the newspapers, hence the suppression of the names.
Source:  Worcestor Daily Spy (Worcestor, MA)  Page: 9
Dated: Dec. 15, 1896
     Rochester, N. Y., Dec. 14 - Maria G. Porter died here Saturday night, aged 91 years.  She was well known figure in the early history of Rochester, where she came when 20 years of age from Bristol, Me.
     Maria Porter was one of the best friends the anti-slavery movement ever had.  The number of runaway slaves who found shelter and concealment under her roof reached into the hundreds.  She also entertained during those days many of the most prominent workers for the cause - William Lloyd Garrison, Beecher and others.
Source:  Daily Herald (Biloxi, MS)  Vol: 2 Issue: 300  Page: 6
Dated:  Aug. 4, 1900
How Nancy Scott,  a Runaway Slave, Found Her Husband Again.
     The death at the Rhode Island state institution for the insane of Nancy Scott, aged 70 years, which occurred during the last week of May, brings to memory a story of Abraham Lincoln which has never been published.
     Way back in slavery days, Nancy Scott and her husband were slaves on a Virginia plantation owned by one of the prominent and wealthy F. F. V.'s of the commonwealth.  Nancy was the trusted housekeeper of the family.  While young she was married to a young slave on the same plantation.  Her marriage occurred about the beginning of the civil war, and after the first few months of fighting her husband disclosed to her his intention of running away and working his way north, seeking a means of livelihood; he bade her remain where she is until he could communicate with her and said that when he became established where he was sure of supporting her he would send for her to go to him.
     Months went on, says the New York Sun, until one day a dusky little one came to Nancy' arms.  When the baby was a year old Nancy decided to try and escape and travel north, hoping to hear some news of her baby's father.  She left her cabin one night at nearly dawn, carrying her little one in her arms, and passed slowly across the country which was the fighting arena of more battles than any other territory in the south.  She was trying to make her way to the Potomac river, and there, at some obscure landing, take a boat for Washington.  Such a place she reached one hot day when the boat arrived she went aboard keeping as much out of the way of the passengers as she could.  There was a group of men seated on the quarterdeck.  Among them one whose lean, gaunt figure and dark, seamy face somewhat attracted her notice.
     When the boat nerared Washington she left her place below among the freight and timidly went up to the gangway.  The steamer had arrived at her dock and the passengers were leaving, but the group in which the dark, rugged man was seated had not yet dispersed.
     Nancy Scott went forward toward the gangplank, but before she had reached it the purser stepped forwards and said, harshly:
     'Here, you, woman, where are you going?  Where's your ticket?"
     Paralyzed with fear she hesitated.
     "You're a runaway nigger, and you can't go ashore; you go below and we'll see about you later."
     But the dark seamy-faced man, with the tire eyes, came up then and said quietly.
     "What is the matter?"
     The tears streamed down Nancy Scott's face as she said she only wanted to go ashore; that she was searching for her husband her little one's father.
     "Tell me your story," said the dark man.
     In a simple words she told him of her separation from her husband, the birth of her child, her weeks of weary waiting, and the eyes of the dark man grew soft with pity.
     Turning to the purser, he said:  "Let this woman go ashore."  Then taking her by the arm he walked by her side until the street was reached.  Giving her some money he told her to find some decent colored family and make inquiries for her missing husband.
     "Tell me your name, sir?" begged Nancy Scott.
"My name, my good woman, is plain Abraham Lincoln," said the man, and turning away he lifted his hat "just like I was a grand lady," and left her.
     Nancy Scott, with the help of the pastor of a church for colored people, found her husband; he had vainly tried to communicate with her many times; he had not dared to go in search of her.  He was employed in a hotel and able to care for his little family comfortably.
Source: Sun (Baltimore, Maryland)  Volume: CXXXVI  Issue: 1  Page: 8
Dated:  Nov. 17, 1904
They Want Man Who Married Colored Woman Kept In Army.
[Special Dispatch to the Baltimore Sun.]
     Boston, Nov. 16 - Alleging that injustice has been done Private John T. Smith, whose discharge from the United States Army was recommended by Gen. Fred D. Grant because he married a negress, colored people of New England have sent a petition to President Roosevelt asking that he intervene.
     Some time ago a New England suffrage league sent out blanks asking for signatures to the petition on the ground that the discharge of a white soldier from the army for no other reason than that he had married a colored women would encourage prejudice against the negroes in the army and out of it and that it would be an insult to every colored woman.
     The petition, which was headed by the name of C. C. Morgan, a Boston lawyer, and signed by nearly 1,000 persons, reads as follows:
     "We, the undersigned colored Americans, believing that the interests of personal liberty require that the appeal of Private John T. Smith, stationed at Fort Worth, Salem, N. J., to the President of the United States from his discharge by his superior officers, resulting from his marriage to a woman of our race, be sustained, and realizing that his discharge, except for specific wrongdoing would, under the circumstances, operate with great injury to colored Americans, hereby pray and petition you, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States, head of the army, to intervene tho the end that the discharge of said Smith may be rescinded.
Source:  Tampa Tribune, Tampa, Florida - Page 1
Dated: Saturday, Aug. 25, 1906
Negro Confessed and Had to Be Supported by the Attendants
(By Associated Press)
     LAFAYETTE, La., Aug. 24 - Dave Howard, alias Emsley a negro, was hanged at noon for the murder of Joseph Breax, a Syrian peddler, May 28.
     He made a full confession.
     Before the execution, he weakened and had to be supported on the scaffold.
Source:  Daily Herald (Biloxi, Mississippi) Vol.: XI  Issue:  86  Page: 1
Dated:  Nov. 26, 1908

Three Negroes Strung Up for the Shooting and Fatally Wounding of Two Deputy Sheriffs - Mob Was Determined.
     Tiptonville, Tenn., Nov. 25. - Three dead bodies dangling from an improvised scaffold erected in front of the pulpit of a negro church in district No. 4 (Lake county), five miles from this city, was the awful spectacle which greeted the crowd of curious people who gathered about the church this morning to view the work of the mob which took from the Tiptonville jail last night Marshall, Ed and Jim Stinebock, the negroes who shot and fatally wounded two deputy sheriffs in front of this same church last Saturday Night.
     The lynching of these negroes was planned with deliberation and executed with a gruesome coolness that has rarely been witnessed in the work of mobs.  All day yesterday this little city was filled with an excited mob numbering anywhere from 150 to 500 men.  This mob, however, seemed willing to listen to reason and for some hours it was thought that the leaders had agreed to allow the law to take its course.  Later in the afternoon the mob dispersed.

Gathering of the Mob.

     The negroes were arrested near Ridgeley and taken to Tiptonville.  No sooner had this been accomplished than a mob of determined men began to gather, and within an hour preparations to carry into execution the work of vengeance determined upon were well under way and the leaders began to gather their forces about them to make the assult on the jail.
     The crowds made up of determined and angry men slowly surrounded the jail, but soon it was met by one of the county's most prominent lawyers, J. T. Burnett, who made in impassioned address urging the mob to desist from any act of violence and promising to use his influence in seeing that the negroes got a speedy trail.
     This did not appeal to the mob, and finally S. J. Caldwell, another lawyer, proposed that if the mob was determined to lynch the negroes at least to wait until even the semblence of a trial could be had, and he suggested that Justice Davis be authorized to summons a jury and let the negroes be duly sentenced to death, and the mob could execute the sentence.

Mob Watched the Jail

     This was agreed to and the mob except just enough to watch the jail and see that Sheriff Hains did not attempt to slip the negroes out and carry them to a place of safety, left the jail building to await the trial set for 5 o'clock in the afternoon.

Efforts to Prevent Lynching

     In the meantime, after the story of the proposed lynching had been sent out and thus became known in Nashville, Mr. Haines and others received telegrams from Gov. Patterson plead with them "for God's sake to prevent the proposed lynching as it would be a disgrace to the State."  He also agreed to order a special term of the Criminal Court to try the negroes.
     Sheriff Haines also communicated with Attorney General Caldwell at Union City, and he in turn called up a number of men here, including Cheek Rarrus, father of Richard Rarrus, the special deputy killed by the negroes, and Mrs. Rarrus.  After taking with Gen. Caldwell, Rarrrus said he was will for the law to take its course, and he advised leaders of the mob to go home and let the negroes be tried in the regular way.

The Lynching

     The men were finally taken from the jail by the mob, placed in a wagon and driven to the church, where the negroes had committed their crimes.
     Here the mob, following out the cold calculating determination which had characterized all of its previous plans and proceedings erected within the church a scaffold just in front of the pulpit from which the three negroes were hanged, Marshall Stinebeck, the larger of the three brothers swung in the center of the beam, with Ed and Johnston back on either end.
     After the negroes had been swung up a member of the mob stepped forward and fired a shot into the body of Marshall Stiebeck, aiming at the exact spot in which the negro had shot Deputy Sheriff John Hall.
     The mob then quietly dispersed.

Source:  Anaconda Standard (Anaconda, Montana)  Volume: XXX Issue: 26  Page: 13
Dated:  Sept. 29, 1918
After a Month of Married Life Colored Couple Land in Jail.
   "That man should be in the army fighting; he married me to get out of going to war, but if he ever starts another piece of trouble like he did this morning, no German will ever get the chance to put him under the sod." remarked Mrs. Robert Whitten as she sat in an automobile in the custody of an officer yesterday, while a physician was sewing up a jagged gash in the neck of her husband.  It was only by the narrowest kind of margin that the knife thrust missed the jugular vein.
     The couple were married last month but, according to Mrs. Whitten, their married life has been a stormy one.  According to her story, her husband's favorite diversion was to come home at any time of the day or night and beat her.  This is what occurred yesterday.  Whitten returned home some time after 2 o'clock yesterday morning, woke up his better half and proceeded to administer a beating.  About 10:30 o'clock the fight was renewed, but this time, Mrs. Whitten was prepared, and as the husband lunged at her she drew a knife across his throat.
     The trouble occurred at No. 5 Pennsylvania avenue and the first known of it was when some one telephoned the Butte, Anaconda & officer to Mainville at once, as a cutting affair was on.  Special Agent Werner Olson of the railway force summoned Chief O'Brien, who was standing near, and on their arrival at the house the couple was placed under arrest and locked up in the county jail.
     When informed that her husband's wounds were not serious, Mr. Whitten expressed regret over the fact that she had not pressed down harder on the knife.  "If I could have got hold of the axe, you would not have had to call a doctor, but an undertaker," she is alleged to have said.
Source:  Negro Star (Wichita, Kansas)  Volume: 27  Issue: 23  Page: 3
Dated: Sept. 14, 1934
New York, (By ANP) - Dispatches from abroad recently brought news of the death of Norine Lattimore, born in 1894, and once, as Dolores, the most famous artist's model in England.  Last spring she did a fasting act in a barrel in a London amusement park.  A short time later, she died in the Charity ward of a London hospital from cancer.
     Time reports:  "In the art world Dolores got her start with stocky, tousle-haired Jacob Epstine for whom she posed for a long series of unrecognizable busts and figure studies.  John Singer Sargent painted several portraits of her before she died.  Many times she posed for Augustus John, Sir John Lavery, and Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson - Even Snobbish Philip de Ladzle decided that Dolores was an important a figure as the princes, promoters and relates to whom he normally devotes his easels."
     Three men committed suicide because of her, one of them, one of her five husbands.
     At one time, she was proposed to by an East Indian, but, forgetting that she was already married, told him that she could never marry a black man.
     Later, however, she changed her mind and married an American Negro George Lattimore, whose name she bore at her death.

Baton Rouge, La (ANP) - Roosevelt Swain was hanged last Friday for the murder of Alfred Harris, last December.

Source:  Chicago Metro News (Chicago, Illinois)
Dated: Nov. 16, 1985

North and South Negro Contributions to the war effort (1863-1865)
     "Official records show that a total of 178,985 enlisted men and 7,122 officers served in Negro regiments during the Civil War, nearly 10% of the Union army.  These men fought in 449 engagements, of which 39 were major battles.  Approximately 37,300 Negros lost their lives while serving in the Union Army.  Seventeen Colored soldiers and four Negro sailors were awarded Congressional Medals of Honor.  Colored men were understandably proud of their record in the civil war."
     The cabinet of Abraham Lincoln was faced with a most paramount dilemma.  In 1862 the war was slipping into the hands of the Confederate war machine.  Unless Lincoln took such drastic actions as necessary, the union would be lost!  In 1860 with a newly elected President, amid the awesome threat of secession, 11 southern states left the union.  "They did so chiefly because they feared Lincoln would restrict their right to do as they chose about the question of Negro slavery.  The north entered the war only to reunite the nation, not to abolish slavery!"
     Before Lincoln could issue the Emancipation Proclamation he must have a staggering military victory!  Such an occurrence happened at the battle of Antietam Sept. 17, 1862.  Five days later, on Sept. 22, 1862 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation.  If those rebellious southern states did not return to the union by Jan. 1, 1863, the slaves were to be declared "forever free."  As anticipated, the south rejected Lincoln's offer.  Lincoln's action as Commander and Chief was termed "a fit and necessary war measure."
     As I sat and watched this euphemistic melodrama called North and South, I felt obligated to do what historians and media people have never done - tell you the truth of Black involvement in that epic period of the Civil War.  After the shot that was heard around the world: the firing of Fort Sumter,  April 12, 1861, Blacks rushed to enlist their services toward the cause of saving the union.  However, racial bigotry and an obdurate feeling that slaves and freemen of color would not raise arms against their masters, prompted secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton to refuse their request.  Among other things he intimated that a white man would never allow himself to be reduced to fighting beside a Negro!
     History as a strange course of events has a way of taking the plausability of certainty and reversing it to an extent that events that would never be, are every day happenstance.  Not only did Black soldiers fight side-by-side with white units, they fought as assault troops in front of white union soldiers.
     In spite of voluminous research to the contrary, a majority of laymen and some historians maintain that Blacks never were prominent as a fighting force; that they stood as docile beings praying for white troops to win the victory and benevolently grant them their freedom.  Such is the folly of fools.
     In January, 1863, Colonel Higginson led his regiment on a military foray along the St. Mary's River, which forms the boundaries of Florida and Georgia.  The Colonel stated: "The men have been repeatedly under fire; have had infantry, calvary, and even artillery arrayed against them, and have in every instance come off not only with unblemished honor, but with undisputed triumph".  The Colonel concludes: "No officer in their regiment now doubts that the key to the successful prosecution of this war lies in the unlimited employment of Black troops."  On April 30, 1863, General David Hunter, Commander of northern troops in the south, reported to Secretary Stanton:  "I am happy to be able to announce to you my complete and eminent satisfaction with the results of the organization of Negro regiments in this department..."
     Mar. 23, 1863, the New York Tribune reported editorially:  "Facts are beginning to dispel prejudices.  Enemies of the Negro race, who have persistently denied the capacity and doubted the courage of the Blacks are unanswerably confuted by the good conduct and gallant deeds of the men whom they persecute and slander."  Not only was the ex-slave an excellent fighting man, he served in many other capacities.  He was to act as drayman, ammunition bearer, builder of breastworks, spy, saboteur, and man servant.  White troops from the north, officers and enlisted men alike, had no knowledge of the terrain; the southern Black turned soldier had knowledge of every gully and stream.   Thus with all this information and labor direct toward his own freedom the Negro has found to be an invaluable force.
     The of course, there were the Black troops from the north.  In the summer of 1863, the War Department granted authority to northern states to fill their enlistment quotas with Negro troops.  By the summer's end of 1863, there stood in military readiness some 58 regiments of Negro troops in the Union Army.  On July 11, 1863, the Anglo African issued a manifesto to white America to wit:  "White America remember!  That we know that in going to the field we will neither get bounty, or as much wages even as you will receive for the performance of the same duty - that we are well aware of the fact that if captured we will be treated like beasts by our enemies - that the avenue to honor and promotion is close to us; but these things we care not..."
     Many Black soldiers, recent freedman or fugitive slaves still wore the brand of slavery of their back, while in their breast beat a stout brave heart; anxious for hte moment when they might perchance encounter on the razor's point of their bayonets the blood of their former masters.  One such regiment was "The Native Guard" which General Butler formed when he entered New Orleans.
     All line officers of the regiment were Black.  They were from the most influential and wealthy freemen of New Orleans.  It was rumored that not one of these officers was worth less than 25,000 dollars.  Of this number Captain Andre' Callioux was magnificent.  Unmistakenly Black, he prided himself as being the Blackest man in the Cresent City.  Bravery among these Blacks was infectiously chauvinistic as they requested the prime position of assult in the upcoming battle, and it was granted.  Thus on May 27, 1863, two full regiments of New Orleans free Negroes and ex-slaves sprang from their concealment, with muskets at the port arms and advanced toward the confederate stronghold on the lower Mississippi, forever to be written in the blood and dying agony of Black troops called Port Hudson!
     As the Stars and Strips, adjacent to the regimental colors caught the gleam of a bright spring morning, those standard bearers, Black as coal, ex-slaves, now wearing union blue, ranks were thinned out by confederate musket fire.  On they came, transfixed on the notion of taking Johnny Reb's blood.  They stepped over their wounded as they lie in their last agony.  Amid the pools of bright red blood and broken bone, while Black men suffered their last, they relentlessly came singing their own version of the Battle hymn of the Republic.  "We is done hoeing cotton; we is done hoeing corn; we is Colored yankee soldiers, sho as you is born.  When old master hears us holler he will think it's Gabriel's horn as we go marching on."  The Rebs had found the range now, with a blistering fire of shell, canister, grape and musketry.  Native guard's ranks would waver and thin at the falling of the dead and wounded, only to regroup and with perfect rank and file assult the accursed confederates once again.  This field of honor, to the Blackman's glory and determination to be free, was soaked in his blood with scattered bits of flesh and membrane steeped in falls of flowing vermillion streams of his search for liberty.  As the ranks faltered and the colors were tumbling to the ground another Black hand would take up the cause and advance on this devastating impregnable wall of b___ing ball and shot.
     "No matter how gallantly the men behaved... it was not in the course of things that this gallant brigade should take these works by charge."  Yet charge after charge was ordered in this frontal assault on certain death.  Six charges in all that resulted in countless deaths was ordered.  At about one o'clock the last charge was made.  Captain Callioux's arm, dangling, being splintered by a shot, was broken above the elbow.  In his right he held his gleeming sword as rivers of red streamed from his agonizing wound.  His hoarse voice could be heard inspiring his men on.  A shell struck the brave Callioux and in the midst of a cloud of a dark grey explosion the immortal Captain fell in advance of his men!
     Well, I hardly suppose a narrative as was just witnessed, did, or will, ever be shown on television.  But because truth and you are so very precious to me, I thought you ought to know.  You must never, never forget that white folks didn't free Black folks; Black folks freed Black folks.  And so it goes!
     The moving finger writes and having wit moves on ... not all your piety nor all your wit can change a single word of it.
     Historically Speaking,
     Mr. Willie Dixon, Jr.

Source:  Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (PA)
Dated: Feb. 21, 2004

Earl Hutchinson Sr., who in his 90s and with the prodding and help of his better-known son, Earl Ofari Hutchinson, wrote his autobiography, "A Colored Man's Journey Through 20th Century Segregated America," has died. He was 100.
      Mr. Hutchinson died yesterday in Los Angeles, said his son, a civil-rights author and longtime radio-show host.
     When the memoir was published in 2000, the elder Hutchinson was 96 and, according to Ethnic News Watch and the Los Angeles Sentinel, the oldest black American to write his autobiography.
     The book, a Sentinel reviewer noted, was "a compelling saga of one man's fight for personal dignity."
     President Clinton wrote to Mr. Hutchinson, congratulating him on the book and calling him "a strong and dedicated champion of social, economic and political equality."
     "In the era I lived through, we called ourselves 'colored,' " Mr. Hutchinson told the Los Angeles Times in 2000. "We were proud of being colored. We turned the word into a badge of pride rather than an emblem of shame. It still is to me."
     Mr. Hutchinson, born Dec. 11, 1903, in Clarksville, Tenn., and reared in St. Louis, never marched in a demonstration or otherwise protested the racial discrimination he considered "just the way it was." He was 61 by the time the Civil Rights Act outlawed segregation in schools, housing and the workplace.
     Yet, in his own quiet and determined way, he forged a career in the U.S. Postal Service and then real estate, brought up a family and integrated white neighborhoods.
     Perhaps considered passive compared with young black men of today, Mr. Hutchinson achieved change simply by the way he lived.
     "I'm a colored person," he told the Times four years ago. "I never felt I was superior. I certainly never felt that I was inferior."
     Moving to St. Louis provided no escape from segregation for Mr. Hutchinson's family. As a boy, he related in his book, he lived near a school, yet had to walk three miles to attend a school for blacks. Despite the heat of Missouri summers, he had to stand outside public swimming pools "and watch Caucasians swim." When he walked through white neighborhoods, he was beaten by white boys who screamed racial epithets at him.
     Nevertheless, Mr. Hutchinson refused to become bitter. He graduated from high school at 18 with hopes of becoming a professional musician. But when his grandfather advised him to go to work for the post office, noting that "as long as the government's going, they've got money," he did so.
     At age 23, after five years at the St. Louis post office, he transferred to Chicago.
     Without legal recourse over discrimination, but by simply refusing to take no for an answer, he forced the post office to promote him from an invisible back-room job to window clerk.
     The young bachelor, who prided himself on playing "a mean trombone," enjoyed the Chicago nightlife as he moonlighted with jazz bands and applauded such entertainers as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, Earl Hines and Pearl Bailey.
     In his autobiography, Mr. Hutchinson related the tenor of the times, citing heroes who were cheered in black theaters and on radio, such as Olympic athlete Jesse Owens and boxer Joe Louis. The fighter, he said, "was our hero ... he made colored people feel that they were somebody."
     In another daring move, the quiet but determined Mr. Hutchinson related in his book, in the late 1940s he bought an apartment in a white Chicago neighborhood and moved his family in.
     The next day, neighbors put signs in their windows: "Unwanted occupant at 6357 Greenwood must go." A log was thrown through the window, and their fence was trampled, but the family stayed.
     Unimpressed with California on an early visit, Mr. Hutchinson nevertheless agreed to move to Los Angeles in 1960 to escape Chicago's bitter winters. He was 56 and retired as a postal employee, but he quickly went into real estate and worked seven years as a clerk with the Department of Water and Power.
     He summarized his philosophy on identity for the Times in 2000: "When I was in St. Louis, I was colored. When I got to Chicago, I was a Negro. When I got to California, I was black. But I'm still brown.
     "Someday," he added, "I hope we would be known as just Americans. I'm asking no more, no less."
Source:  The Capital, Annapolis, MD
Dated: Oct. 4, 2007

School playground near the John Taylor funeral home.
     The little school that almost no one talks about was the St. Mary's Colored School that survived on the grounds of St. Mary's from 1891 until 1949. A new small wooden schoolhouse with a small attic dormer room was built in 1903. Two school Sisters of Notre Dame were teaching in the school and one of them received a paid annual salary provided by a generous donation by a charitable lady in the area by the name of Louise Morrell.
     In 1910 with $15 from the Saint Teresa Beneficial Society, $200 raised by the African-American parishioners Easter festival and the remainder being given by Ms. Morrell, an additional classroom was added and a cellar was excavated to receive modern heating apparatus. The school grew in numbers and in 1921 14 first-graders were turned away because of the lack of seats.
     Many of the students were non Catholic; however, from time to time prior to graduation, both boys and girls were converted and received their holy communion. Graduation was always followed by a day at the Priest's Farm on the Severn River for a picnic.
     When you talk with those who reside in Annapolis about their experiences at the St. Mary's Colored school they all remember one thing. It was clear that they were segregated from the white school population almost all of the time.
     It is noted in the history of St. Mary's and the Colored school that during World War II both the colored children and the white children participated in the drills required in the event of an air raid. Both were taken to the corridor and music room on the first floor of the convent.
     According to former students, the children of color were allowed to participate in the activities during Lent; however, they were forced to sit in the back of the church when attending with white students. It is also worthy to note that in May 1943, children of the Colored School participated with students in a church ceremony at which they were solemnly consecrated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. This event was repeated in 1946 and 1948.
      The black children who attended St. Mary's Colored school were from all over the City of Annapolis both uptown and downtown and were not necessarily Catholics. Some of them who attended in the late 30's, early 40's remembered that their parents paid a stipend, although very small, to help with their education. These adults still remember the names of many of the Sisters that taught them at St. Mary's, including Sister Mary Damian Gretz who remained at St. Mary's until 1973.
     These same adults also remember that they always knew that they were segregated from the white students in the same school. As mentioned earlier, although there were several programs in which they attended with whites they were always segregated from them. They also remember that there was a strong sense of discipline in the colored school, there are many who remember like my own father that the sisters used rulers to crack their knuckles and the pointers used for the blackboard doubled as switches used to sting their legs and backsides.
     The children of the Colored School also remembered having a wood stove in the late 1930's and early 1940's although the history records that modern heating was used as early as 1910.
     These former students always remembered feeling that they were treated differently because they were not allowed to use inside restroom facilities. Many of them used an outhouse until Father Augustine Smith arrived in 1942. Considerable improvements were made to include electricity, a masonry lavatory wing with modern toilets and sinks in 1943.
     After St. Mary's, many who could afford it continued on to high school in Baltimore and Washington until the Wiley H. Bates Colored School was opened in 1932. On June 12, 1949 the last class graduated from St. Mary's Colored School. In September 1949, the black school and congregation left Duke of Gloucester Street to a new church and school for African Americans in the black community of the old 4th Ward. The school built on Bates Street, St. Augustine's, opened and due to an act of nature was closed in 1967. But that's another story. For more on St. Mary's please see Robert Worden's new book called, "St. Mary's Church in Annapolis."

Welcome to Annapolis
     To our visitors, welcome! This year I would like to personally welcome all the boaters, in particular those attending the fourth annual Black Boaters Summit Reunion.
     Welcome Capt. Paul Mixon from Honey Let's Travel and your crew! I also want to welcome Capt. Bill Pinkney of the Amistad who will be with us Saturday. I'm looking forward to updates on the travels of the Amistad since last year and what is planned for this year. During your stay in Annapolis please enjoy your stay, the food and the people in the best historic seaport in America.
     Please don't forget Sunday marks 240 years since Alex Haley's ancestor, Kunta Kinte, was sold in Annapolis to a Virginia planter. I look forward to sharing our incredible history with you at 3 p.m. Sunday for "High Tea & History" at Reynolds Tavern on Church Circle, one of the city's most notorious sites of slave sales. Reservations are a must, seats are limited, $25 per person.


The columnist is a native of Annapolis and a recent recipient of R.E.S.P.E.C.T, Inc., Co-Chairpersons Award for "Outstanding Community Leadership and significant contributions to community development, coalition building and organizational unity." E-mail:

Source: The Daily Sentinel (Pomeroy, OH)
Dated: May 24, 2012

Edward Courtney - William Bentley - Remembering those who served
POMEROY - The story of two Meigs County African American men who were recruited to serve in the first colored unit representing Ohio in the Civil War, was relayed during the Memorial Day service held Saturday at the Civil War statue on the courthouse lawn.
     Doug McCabe, director of manuscripts at the Mahn Center of Archives and Special Collections at Ohio University's Alden Library, was speaker for the program held by the Brooks-Grant Camp of the Sons of Union Soldiers and the Major Daniel Mc-Cook Circle 104 of the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic.
McCabe said both men, William Bentley, a naive of Meigs County, and Edward Courtney, a native of Virginia but a resident of Meigs County, enlisted on June 22, 1863, into that first African American unit being organized by Milton Hollow of Athens County, a former slave. Both of the Meigs County men were injured in the war, but both survived.
     These men of the 127th OVI were mustered in at a segregated camp in Delaware where McCabe described them as having to "put up with the deprivations of lower pay than white soldiers, a lack of clothing and a lack of weapons." He went on to say that "still they trained and eventually were sent to Norfolk, Va. where in 1863 they were given a new designation - the 5th United States Colored Infantry.
     The speaker detailed the battles encountered by the 5th, citing their bravery and success in battle as well as their determination despite the hardship of being illequipped.
McCabe said that during their raids, "thousands of slaves belonging to rebel masters were liberated."
     In his talk, McCabe described the battles in which those in the colored 5th Unit succeeded in battles where the white Union regiments had failed. As a result of their success, several men of the 5th, including Holland, the unit organizer, were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
     The speaker said that the 5th United States Colored Infantry lost a total of 249 men.
     He also noted that hundreds of African-American men rallied to join the Union Army right at the beginning of the war, and nearly all were turned down. That changed later when it became apparent the war would last a long time.
     By the end of the war, colored troops constituted one-tenth of the total soldiers who served in the Union armies, sending over 178,000 men to the field, McCabe reported.
     "They finally did get equal pay for their service, but after the war, it took years before they could actually become eligible for pensions and disability pay," McCabe said.
     In conclusion, the speaker called on those attending the memorial service to "remember and humbly thank our colored soldiers, including Meigs Countians Bentley and Courtney, from long ago who sacrificed so much that all of us could live better lives."
Jean Hilton of the Mc-Cook Circle 104 was emcee for the 11 a.m. program and spoke about the need to remember our ancestors who served in the Civil War as well as those who served before and after that war, along with the orphans and widows who were left behind. She included in her comments a "Widow's Tribute" and concluded with the placing of wreaths at the base of the Civil War statue where the names of those killed in that war are engraved on the base. Recorded music was used to enhance the program which was followed by a luncheon at the Meigs Museum.
Source:  The Denver Post: Blogs (CO)
Dated: Sep. 2, 2012

James "Jimmy" Miller: Colorado's first execution as a state was a Buffalo Soldier who killed the wrong man.
Capital punishment has walked hand in hand with much of the its sketchy history in Colorado. Michael Radelet from the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado at Boulder, counts 102 legal executions and 175 lynchings.
     He notes that William Gilpin, Colorado's first territorial governor, first authorized the death penalty on Nov. 5, 1861, and two years later "under territorial authority took the life of William S. Van Horn, who was hanged before a crowd of thousands" in Central City" on Dec. 18, 1863.
     Though a pretty bold way to introduce the color of law to the Wild West's storied history of swift justice, it does not match the story of the first death under a figurative state flag.
     James "Jimmy" Miller was a 23-year-old Buffalo Soldier private in the U.S. Colored Troops at Fort Lyon on Aug. 26, 1876 — 25 days after Colorado became a state — when he attended a dance in tiny Las Animas.
     According to the story, a drunk white man whose name is lost to history told Miller the dance hall was for whites only and drove him out at the point of the gun, as another white patron, John Sutherland, tried to step in on Miller's behalf.
     "Miller and a friend, Benjamin Smith, later returned and randomly shot into the bar, missing the thug but killing Sutherland. Both men received death sentences; the governor commuted Smith's sentence," according to the Colorado State Public Defender's Office "Catalog of Colorado Executions."
     Some context of the times: The Buffalo Soldiers today are honored as the heros they were, freed slaves who took up arms to defend a country that, until the Civil War, had viewed them as little more than chattel. Fort Lyon, had been under a cloud of national shame since it served as the base from which Col. John Chivington led 700 Colorado militia volunteers on a merciless attack on peaceful Arapaho and Cheyenne, killing 128 women,children and elders — a cowardly attack The History Channel called "a depraved slaughter," in which bodies were scalped and mutilated, including sexual organs.
     The Buffalo Soldiers came west to help stem the retaliatory attacks from numerous tribes and help ensure safe passage for overwhelmingly white settlers, but in 1869, when white soldiers at Fort Lyon instigated a brawl in a theater, Buffalo Soldiers with the 10th Cavalry were pulled from the area, leaving the 9th Cavalry, to which the doomed Miller belonged.
     The Colorado Catalog of Executions describes Miller's end this way:
     "At the hanging, which the governor delayed two weeks so Miller could join a church and be married, the trapdoor would not open at first, and when it did, it fell to the ground. Miller dropped through the opening in the platform, but the rope was too long and his feet came to rest on the trap door that had fallen below him. The trap door was quickly removed so Miller could swing unimpeded. He hung for twenty-five minutes before expiring. Later, the sheriff, distraught over the bungled hanging, resigned his position and left the community."
     Oddly, Fort Lyon today is a state prison, and its end is uncertain.

Source:  St. Louis Dispatch (MO)
Dated: May 27, 2014

Former slaves who fought in Civil War remembered
ST. LOUIS • They fought for a country that refused to recognize them as citizens and died in virtual anonymity, their remains lumped together in a single burial plot.
     For nearly 150 years, the freed slaves of the 56th United States Colored Infantry who fought for the Union Army in the Civil War were a historical footnote, buried in a mass grave after cholera killed the troops as they prepared to go home. Even after the remains of more than 100 veterans were relocated to Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery near St. Louis in 1939, they were buried as unknown soldiers.
     But on Monday, a small group of local historians braved a late-morning Memorial Day downpour in a bid to reclaim the memory of the individual men in the 56th Regiment.
     Members of the St. Louis African American History and Genealogy Society recited each of the 173 names at a graveside ceremony, after an area veteran uncovered the soldiers' identities with some cursory research at a St. Louis County library.
     A bronze grave marker with those names will be added to a roughly 6-foot-tall obelisk marking the 56th's burial site later this summer. Two adjacent headstones that refer to unknown soldiers will be removed at the cemetery, which is the final burial place for more than 180,000 soldiers dating to 1826, including hundreds of other mass graves and thousands of unknown soldiers.
"In the military, you can't walk from here to that tree without your name being on a list," said Sarah Cato, a retired lawyer and the society's vice president. "The names were always known. ... We didn't make some phenomenal discovery. We just brought it to (public) attention."
     Cato and other group members enlisted the support of Missouri's congressional delegation soon after a member of the Jefferson Barracks Chapel Association alerted them to the oversight. Rep. Ann Wagner, R-Ballwin, spoke at the group's inaugural memorial ceremony for the regiment nine months ago.
     The grave marker will include the names of 55 soldiers whose remains could not be recovered but were believed to have been buried on the banks of the Mississippi River on an outpost once known as Quarantine Island for its role in preventing the spread of diseases. Like other units at the time, the regiment was led by white officers.
     The regiment's ranks included men such as William Alexander, a Company E private, and Marion Woodson, a Company B private. By and large, little is known about the unit's individual members, Cato said.
     Historians with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' National Cemetery Administration helped verify the authenticity of the 56th Regiment military records.
     "We want them to be properly recognized," cemetery director Jeff Barnes said.
     But he noted that even with the newest discovery, Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery still contains 564 mass graves and more than 3,000 unknown soldiers, primarily from the Civil War.
     Though formed in St. Louis in 1863, the 56th Regiment was initially known as the 3rd Arkansas Infantry Regiment (African Descent). Troops were stationed in Helena, a river town in eastern Arkansas, primarily working in logistical support units that guarded railroad bridges and loaded supplies.
     In July 1864, they withstood a Confederate attack at Wallace's Ferry in which their commander was killed. The cholera outbreak occurred as the soldiers prepared to return home by ship in the summer of 1866.
     "Today we celebrate the lives, courage and commitment of the men of the 56th," Cato said in the brief ceremony. "As we read their names, let them know, Lord, that they are not forgotten."





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