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History & Genealogy


(Previously Published in 1879 with title: The Underground Railroad)
For many years connected with the Anti-Slavery Office in Philadelphia, and Chairman of the Acting
Vigilant Committee of the Philadelphia Branch of the Underground Rail Road.

Illustrated with 70 Fine Engravings by Bensell, Schell and Others,
and Portraits from Photographs from Life.

Thou shalt not deliver unto his master the servant that has escaped from his master unto thee. - Deut. xxiii 16.



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     Rarely did the peculiar institution present the relations of mistress and maid-servant in a light so apparently favorable as in the case of Mrs. Joseph Cahell (widow of the late (Hon. Jos. Cahell, of Va.), and her slave, Cordelia.  The Vigilance Committee's first knowledge of either of these memorable personages was brought about in the following manner.
     About the 30th of March, in the year 1859, a member of the Vigilance Committee was notified by a colored servant, living at a fashionable boarding-house on Chestnut street that a lady with a slave woman from Fredericksburg, Va., was boarding at said house, and, that said slave woman desired to receive counsel and aid from the Committee, as she was anxious to secure her freedom, before her mistress returned to the South.  On further consultation about the matter, a suitable hour was named for the meeting of the Committee and the Slave at the above named boarding-house.  Finding that

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the woman was thoroughly reliable, the Committee told her "that two modes of deliverance were open before her.  One was to take her trunk and all her clothing and quietly retire."  The other was to "sue out a writ of habeas corpus, and bring the mistress before the Court, where she would be required, under the laws of Pennsylvania, to show cause why she restrained this woman of her freedom."  Cordelia concluded to adopt the former expedient, provided the Committee would protect her.  Without hesitation the Committee answered her, that to the extent of their ability, she should have their aid with pleasure, without delay.  Consequently a member of the Committee was directed to be on hand at a given hour that evening, as Cordelia would certainly be ready to leave her mistress to take care of herself.   Thus, at the appointed hour, Cordelia, very deliberately, accompanied the Committee away from her " kind hearted old mistress."
     In the quiet and security of the Vigilance Committee Room, Cordelia related substantially the following brief story touching her relationship as a slave to Mrs. Joseph Cahell. In this case, as with thousands and tens of thousands of others, as the old adage fitly expresses it, "All is not gold that glitters."  Under this apparently pious and noble-minded lady, it will be seen, that Cordelia had known naught but misery and sorrow.
     Mrs. Cahell, having engaged board for a month at a fashionable private boarding-house on Chestnut street, took an early opportunity to caution Cordelia against going into the streets, and against having anything to say or do with "free niggers in particular"; withal, she appeared unusually kind, so much so, that before retiring to bed in the evening, she would call Cordelia to her chamber, and by her side would take her Prayer-book and Bible, and go through the forms of devotional service.  She stood very high both as a church communicant and a lady in society.
     For a fortnight it seemed as though her prayers were to be answered, for Cordelia apparently bore herself as submissively as ever, and Madame received calls and accepted invitations from some of the elite of the city, with out suspecting any intention on the part of Cordelia to escape.  But Cordelia could not forget how her children had all been sold by her mistress!
     Cordelia was about fifty-seven years of age, with about an equal proportion of colored and white blood in her veins; very neat, respectful and prepossessing in manner.
     From her birth to the hour of her escape she had worn the yoke under Mrs. C., as her most efficient and reliable maid-servant.  She had been at her mistress' beck and call as seamstress, dressing-maid, nurse in the sick room, etc., etc., under circumstances that might appear to the casual observer uncommonly favorable for a slave.  Indeed, on his first interview with her, the Committee man was so forcibly impressed with the belief, that her condition in Virginia had been favorable, that he hesitated to ask her if she did not desire her liberty.  A few moments' conversation with her, however, con-

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vinced him of her good sense and decision of purpose with regard to this matter.  For, in answer to the first question he put to her, she answered, that "As many creature comforts and religious privileges as she had been the recipient of under her 'kind mistress,' still she 'wanted to be free' and 'was bound to leave,' that she had been 'treated very cruelly;' that her children had 'all been sold away' from her; that she had been threatened with sale herself ' on the first insult,' " etc.
     She was willing to take the entire responsibility of taking care of herself.  On the suggestion of a friend, before leaving her mistress, she was disposed to sue for her freedom, but, upon a reconsideration of the matter, she chose rather to accept the hospitality of the Underground Rail Road, and leave in a quiet way and go to Canada, where she would be free indeed.  Accordingly she left her mistress and was soon a free woman.
     The following sad experience she related calmly, in the presence of several friends, an evening or two after she left her mistress: 
     Two sons and two daughters had been sold from her by her mistress, within the last three years, since the death of her master.   Three of her children had been sold to the Richmond market and the other in Nelson county.
     Paulina was the first sold, two years ago last May.  Nat was the next; he was sold to Abram Warrick, of Richmond.  Paulina was sold before it was named to her mother that it had entered her mistress's mind to dispose of her.  Nancy, from infancy, had been in poor health.  Nevertheless, she had been obliged to take her place in the field with the rest of the slaves, of more rugged constitution, until she had passed her twentieth year, and had become a mother.  Under these circumstances, the overseer and his wife complained to the mistress that her health was really too bad for a field hand and begged that she might be taken where her duties would be less oppressive.  Accordingly, she was withdrawn from the field, and was set to spinning and weaving.  When too sick to work her mistress invariably took the ground, that "nothing was the matter," notwithstanding the fact, that her family physician, Dr. Ellsom, had pronounced her "quite weakly and sick."
     In an angry mood one day, Mrs. Cahell declared she would cure her; and again sent her to the field, "with orders to the overseer, to whip her every day, and make her work or kill her."  Again the overseer said it was "no use to try, for her health would not stand it," and she was forthwith returned.  The mistress then concluded to sell her.
     One Sabbath evening a nephew of hers, who resided in New Orleans, happened to be on a visit to his aunt, when it occurred to her, that she had "better get Nancy off if possible."  Accordingly, Nancy was called in for examination.  Being dressed in her "Sunday best" and "before a poor candle-light," she appeared to good advantage; and the nephew concluded to start with her on the following Tuesday morning.  However, the next

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morning, he happened to see her by the light of the sun, and in her working garments, which satisfied him that he had been grossly deceived; that she would barely live to reach New Orleans; he positively refused to carry out the previous evening's contract, thus leaving her in the hands of her mistress, with the advice, that she should "doctor her up."
     The mistress, not disposed to be defeated, obviated the difficulty by selecting a little boy, made a lot of the two, and thus made it an inducement to a purchaser to buy the sick woman; the boy and the woman brought $700.
    In the sale of her children, Cordelia was as little regarded as if she had been a cow.
    " I felt wretched," she said, with emphasis," when I heard that Nancy had been sold," which was not until after she had been removed.  "But," she continued, "I was not at liberty to make my grief known to a single white soul.  I wept and couldn't help it."  But remembering that she was liable, "on the first insult," to be sold herself, she sought no sympathy from her mistress, whom she describes as " a woman who shows as little kindness towards her servants as any woman in the States of America.  She neither likes to feed nor clothe well."
     With regard to flogging, however, in days past, she had been up to the mark.  "A many a slap and blow" had Cordelia received since she arrived at womanhood, directly from the madam's own hand.
    One day smarting under cruel treatment, she appealed to her mistress in the following strain: "I stood by your mother in all her sickness and nursed her till she died!"  "I waited on your niece, night and day for months, till she died."  "I waited upon your husband all my life—in his sickness especially, and shrouded him in death, etc., yet I am treated cruelly."  It was of no avail.
     Her mistress, at one time, was the owner of about five hundred slaves, but within the last few years she had greatly lessened the number by sales.
     She stood very high as a lady, and was a member of the Episcopal Church.
     To punish Cordelia, on several occasions, she had been sent to one of the plantations to work as a field hand.  Fortunately, however, she found the overseers more compassionate than her mistress, though she received no particular favors from any of them.
     Asking her to name the overseers, etc., she did so.  The first was " Marks, a thin-visaged, poor-looking man, great for swearing."  The second was " Gilbert Brower, a very rash, portly man."  The third was " Buck Youug, a stout man, and very sharp."  The fourth was " Lynn Powell, a tall man with red whiskers, very contrary and spiteful."  There was also a fifth one, but his name was lost.
     Thus Cordelia's experience, though chiefly confined to the " great house," extended occasionally over the corn and tobacco fields, among the overseers

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and field hands generally.  But under no circumstances could she find it in her heart to be thankful for the privileges of Slavery.
     After leaving her mistress she learned, with no little degree of pleasure, that a perplexed state of things existed at the boarding-house; that her mistress was seriously puzzled to imagine how she would get her shoes and stockings on and off; how she would get her head combed, get dressed, be attended to in sickness, etc., as she (Cordelia), had been compelled to discharge these offices all her life.
     Most of the boarders, being slave-holders, naturally sympathized in her affliction; and some of them went so far as to offer a reward to some of the colored servants to gain a knowledge of her whereabouts.  Some charged the servants with having a hand in her leaving, but all agreed that "she had left a very kind and indulgent mistress," and had acted very foolishly in running out of Slavery into Freedom.
     A certain Doctor of Divinity, the pastor of an Episcopal church in this city and a friend of the mistress, hearing of her distress, by request or voluntarily, undertook to find out Cordelia's place of seclusion.  Hailing on the street a certain colored man with a familiar face, who he thought knew nearly all the colored people about town, he related to him the predicament of his lady friend from the South, remarked how kindly she had always treated her servants, signified that Cordelia would rue the change, and be left to suffer among the "miserable blacks down town," that she would not be able to take care of herself; quoted Scripture justifying Slavery, and finally suggested that he (the colored man) would be doing a duty and a kindness to the fugitive by using his influence to " find her and prevail upon her to return."
     It so happened that the colored man thus addressed, was Thomas Dorsey, the well-known fashionable caterer of Philadelphia, who had had the experience of quite a number of years as a slave at the South,—had himself once been pursued as a fugitive, and having, by his industry in the condition of Freedom, acquired a handsome estate, he felt entirely qualified to reply to the reverend gentleman, which he did, though in not very respectful phrases, tolling him that Cordelia had as good a right to her liberty as he had, or her mistress either; that God had never intended one man to be the slave of another; that it was all false about the slaves being better off than the free colored people; that he would find as many "poor, miserably degraded," of his own color "down-town," as among the "degraded blacks"; and concluded by telling him that he would "rather give her a hundred dollars to help her off, than to do aught to make known her whereabouts, if he knew ever so much about her."
     What further steps were taken by the discomfited divine, the mistress, or her boarding-house sympathizers, the Committee was not informed.
     But with regard to Cordelia: she took her departure for Canada, in the

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midst of the Daniel Webster (fugitive) trial, with the hope of being permitted to enjoy the remainder of her life in Freedom and peace.  Being a member of the Baptist Church, and professing to be a Christian, she was persuaded that, by industry and assistance of the Lord, a way would be opened to the seeker of Freedom even in a strange land and among strangers.
     This story appeared in part in the N. Y. Evening Post, having been furnished by the writer, without his name to it.  It is certainly none the less interesting now, as it may be read in the light of Universal Emancipation.




     About the latter part of December, 1857, Isaac and Edmondson, brothers, succeeded in making their escape together from Petersburg, Va.  They barely escaped the auction block, as their mistress, Mrs. Ann Colley, a widow, had just completed arrangements for their sale on the coming first day of January.  In this kind of property, however, Mrs. Colley had not largely invested.  In the days of her prosperity, while all was happy and contented, she could only boast of "four head:" these brothers, Jackson, Isaac and Edmondson and one other.  In May, 1857, Jackson had fled and was received by the Vigilance Committee, who placed him upon their books briefly in the following light:
     "RUNAWAY - Fifty Dollars Reward, - Ran away some time in May last, my Servant-man, who calls himself Jackson Turner.  He is about 27 years of age, and has one of his front teeth out.  He is quite black, with thick lips, a little bow-legged, and looks down when spoken to.  I will give a reward of Fifty dollars if taken out of' the city, and twenty five Dollars if taken within the city.  I forewarn all masters of vessels from harboring or employing the said slave; all persons who disregard this Notice will be punished as the law directs.                                              ANN COLLEY.
     Petersburg, June 8th, 1857."
     JACKSON is quite dark, medium size, and well informed for one in his condition.  In Slavery, he had been "pressed hard."  His hire, "ten dollars per month" he was obliged to produce at the end of each month, no matter how much he had been called upon to expend for "doctor bills, &c."  The woman he called mistress went by the name of Ann Colley, a widow, living near Petersburg.  "She was very quarrelsome," although a "member of the Methodist Church."  Jackson seeing that his mistress was yearly growing "harder and harder," concluded to try and better his condition if possible."  Having a free wife in the North, who was in the habit of

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communicating with him, he was kept fully awake to the love of Freedom.  The Underground Rail Road expense the Committee gladly bore.  No further record of Jackson was made.  Jackson found his poor old father here, where he had resided for a number of years in a state of almost total blindness, and of course in much parental anxiety about his boys in chains.  On the arrival of Jackson, his heart overflowed with joy and gratitude not easily described, as the old man had hardly been able to muster faith enough to believe that he should ever look with his dim eyes upon one of his sons in Freedom.  After a day or two's tarrying, Jackson took his departure for safer and more healthful localities,—her "British Majesty's possessions."  The old man remained only to feel more keenly than ever, the pang of having sons still toiling in hopeless servitude.
     In less than seven months after Jackson had shaken off the yoke, to the unspeakable joy of the father, Isaac and Edmondson succeeded in following their brother's example, and were made happy partakers of the benefits and blessings of the Vigilance Committee of Philadelphia.  On first meeting his two boys, at the Underground Rail Road Depot, the old man took each one in his arms, and as looking through a glass darkly, straining every nerve of his almost lost sight, exclaiming, whilst hugging them closer and closer to his bosom for some minutes, in tears of joy and wonder, "My son Isaac, is this you? my son Isaac, is this you, &c.?"  The scene was calculated to awaken the deepest emotion and to bring tears to eyes not accustomed to weep.  Little had the old man dreamed in his days of sadness, that he should share such a feast of joy over the deliverance of his sons.  But it is in vain to attempt to picture the affecting scene at this reunion, for that would be impossible.  Of their slave life, the records contain but a short notice, simply as follows:
     "Isaac is twenty-eight years of age, hearty-looking, well made, dark color and intelligent.  He was owned by Mrs. Ann Colley, a widow, residing near Petersburg, Va.  Isaac and Edmondson were to have been sold, on New Year's day; a few days hence.  How sad her disappointment mast have been on finding them gone, may be more easily imagined than de scribed."
     Edmondson is about twenty-five, a brother of Isaac, and a smart, good looking young man, was owned by Mrs. Colley also. "This is just the class of fugitives to make good subjects for John Bull," thought the Committee, feeling pretty well assured that they would make good reports after having enjoyed free air in Canada for a short time.  Of course, the Committee enjoined upon them very earnestly " not to forget their brethren left behind groaning in fetters; but to prove by their industry, uprightness, economy, sobriety and thrift, by the remembrance of their former days of oppression and their obligations to their God, that they were worthy of the country to which they were going, and so to help break the bands of the oppressors, and

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undo the heavy burdens of the oppressed."  Similar advice was impressed upon the minds of all travelers passing over this branch of the Underground Rail Road.  From hundreds thus admonished, letters came affording the most gratifying evidence that the counsel of the Committee was not in vain.  The appended letter from the youngest brother, written with his own hand, will indicate his feelings and views in Canada:

                                                                                                        HAMILTON, CANADA WEST Mar. 1, 1858

     MR. STILL, Dear Sir : —I have taken the oppertunity to enform you yur letter came to hand 27th I ware glad to hear from you and yer famly i hope this letter May fine you and the famly Well i am Well my self My Brother join me in Love to you and all the frend.  I ware sorry to hear of the death of Mrs freaman.  We all must die sune or Late this a date we all must pay we must Perpar for the time she ware a nise lady dear sir the all is well and san thar love to you Emerline have Ben sick But is better at this time.  I saw the hills the war well and san thar Love to you.  I war sory to hear that My brother war sol i am glad that i did come away when i did god works all the things for the Best he is young he may get a long in the wole May god Bless hem ef you have any News from Petersburg Va Plas Rite me a word when you anser this Letter and ef any person came form home Letter Me know.  Please sen me one of your Paper that had the under grands R wrod give My Love to Mr Careter and his family I am Seving with a barber at this time he have promust to give me the trad ef i can lane it he is much of a gentman.  Mr Still sir i have writing a letter to Mr Brown of Petersburg Va Pleas reed it and ef you think it right Plas sen it by the Mail or by hand you wall see how i have writen it the will know how sent it by the way this writing ef the ancer it you can sen it to Me i have tol them direc to yor care for Ed. t. Smith Philadelphia i hope it may be right i promorst to rite to hear Please rite to me sune and let me know ef you do sen it on write wit you did with that ma a bught the cappet Bage do not fergit to rite tal John he mite rite to Me.  I am doing as well is i can at this time but i get no wagges But my Bord but is satfid at that thes hard time and glad that i am Hear and in good helth. Northing More at this time                                        yor truly EDMUND TURNER.

     The same writer sent to the Corresponding Secretary the following "Warning to Slave-holders."  At the time these documents were received, Slave holders were never more defiant.  The right to trample oh the weak in oppression was indisputable."  Cinnamon and odors, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men," slave-holders believed doubtless were theirs by Divine Right.  Little dreaming that in less than three short years—"  Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine."  In view of the marvelous changes which have been wrought by the hand of the, Almighty, this warning to slave-holders from one who felt the sting of Slavery, as evincing a particular phase of simple faith and Christian charity is entitled to a place in these records.


     Well may the Southern slaveholder say, that holding their Fellow men in Bondage is no (sin, because it is their delight as the Egyptians, so do they; but nevertheless God in his

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own good time will bring them out by a mighty hand, as it is recorded in the sacred oracles of truth, that Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands to God, speaking in the positive (shall).  And my prayer is to you, oh, slaveholder, in the name of that God who in the beginning said, Let there be light, and there was light.  Let my People go that they may serve me; thereby good may come unto thee and to thy children's children.  Slave-holder have you seriously thought upon the condition yourselves, family and slaves; have you read where Christ has enjoined upon all his creatures to real his word, thereby that they may have no excuse when coming before his judgment seat?  But you say he shall not read his word, consequently his sin will be upon your head.  I think every man has as much as he can do to answer for his own sins.  And now my dear slave-holder, who with you are bound and fast hastening to judgment?  As one that loves your soul repent ye, therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out when the time of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord.  In the language of the poet:

Stop, poor sinner, stop and think,
     Before you further go;
Think upon the brink of death
     Of everlasting woe.
Say, have you an arm like God,
     That you his will oppose?
Fear you not that iron rod
     With which he breaks his foes?

Is the prayer of one that loves your souls.                            EDMUND TURNER.

     To Mr. Wm. Still, Dear Sir:—A favorable opportunity affords the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt of letters and papers; certainly in this region they were highly appreciated, and I hope the time may come that your kindness will be reciprocated we are al well at present, but times continue dull.  I also deeply regret the excitement recently on the account of those slaves, you will favor me by keeping me posted upon the subject.  Those words written to slaveholder is the thought of one who had sufferd, and now 1 thought it a duty incumbent upon me to cry aloud and spare not, &c, by sending these few lines where the slaveholder may hear. You will still further oblige your humble servant also, to correct any inaccuracy.  My respects to you and your family and all inquiring friends.
          Your friend and well wisher,                                                                            EDMUND TURNER.

     The then impending judgments seen by an eye of faith as set forth in this "Warning," soon fell with crushing weight upon the oppressor, and Slavery died.  But then old blind father of Jackson, Isaac and Edmonndson, still lives and may be seen daily on the streets of Philadelphia; and though "halt, and lame, and blind, and poor,"  doubtless resulting form his early oppression, he can thank God and rejoice that he has lived to see Slavery abolished.

[photo between pgs. 120 & 121]

Crossing the River on Horseback in the Night

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     In very desperate straits many new inventions were sought after by deep-thinking and resolute slaves, determined to be free at any cost.  But it must here be admitted, that, in looking carefully over the more perilous methods resorted to, Robert Brown, alias Thomas Jones, stands second to none, with regard to deeds of bold daring.  This hero escaped from Martinsburg, Va., in 1856.  He was a man of medium size, mulatto, about thirty-eight years of age, could read and write, and was naturally sharpwitted.  He had formerly been owned by Col. John F. Franic whom Robert charged with various offences of a serious domestic character.
     Furthermore, he also alleged, that his "mistress was cruel to all the slaves," declaring that "they (the slaves), could not live with her," that "she has to hire servants," etc.
     In order to effect his escape, Robert was obliged to swim the Potomac river on horseback, on Christmas night, while the cold, wind, storm, and darkness were indescribably dismal.  This daring bondman, rather than submit to his oppressor any longer, perilled his life as above stated.  Where he crossed the river was about a half a mile wide.  Where could be found in history of more noble and daring struggle for Freedom?
     The wife sold his bosom and his four children, only five days before he fled, were sold to a trader in Richmond, Va., for no other offence than simply "because she had resisted" the lustful designs of her master, being "true to her own companion."  After this poor slave mother and her children were cast into prison for sale, the husband and some of his friends tried hard to find a purchaser in the neighborhood; but the malicious and brutal master refused to sell her - wishing to gratify his malice to the utmost, and to punish his victims all that lay in his power, he sent them to the place above named.
     In this trying hour, the severed and bleeding heart of the husband resolved to escape at all hazards, taking with him a daguerreotype likeness of his wife which he happened to have on hand, and a lock of hair from her head, and from each of the children, as mementoes of his unbounded (through sundered) affection for them.
     After crossing the river, his wet clothing freezing to him, he rode all night, a distance of about forty miles.  In the morning he left his faithful horse tied to a fence, quite broken down.  He then commenced his dreary journey on foot  cold and hungry - in a strange place, where it was quite unsafe to make known his condition and wants.  Thus for a day or two,  without food or shelter, he traveled until his feet were literally worn out, and in this condition he arrived at Harrisburg, where he found friends.  Passing over many of the interesting incidents on the road, suffice it to say,

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he arrived safely in this city, on New Year's night, 1857, about two hours before day break (the telegraph having announced his coming from Harrisburg), having been a week on the way.  The night he arrived was very cold; besides, the Underground train, that morning, was about three hours behind time; in waiting for it, entirely out in the cold, a member of the Vigilance Committee thought he was frosted.  But when he came to listen to the story of the Fugitive's sufferings, his mind changed.
     Scarcely had Robert entered the house of one of the Committee, where he was kindly received, when he took from his pocket his wife's likeness, speaking very touchingly while gazing upon it and showing it.  Subsequently, in speaking of his family, he showed the locks of hair referred to, which he had carefully rolled up in a paper separately.  Unrolling them, he said, this is my wife's;"  " this is from my oldest daughter, eleven years old;" "and this is from my next oldest;" "and this from the next," "and this from my infant, only eight weeks old."  These mementoes he cherished with the utmost care as the last remains of his affectionate family.  At the sight of these locks of hair so tenderly preserved, the member of the Committee could fully appreciate the resolution of the fugitive in plunging into the Potomac on the back of a dumb beast, in order to flee from a place and people who had made such barbarous havoc in his household.
     His wife, as represented by the likeness, was of fair complexion, prepossessing, and good looking- perhaps not over thirty-three years of age.


     ANTHONY had been serving under the yoke of Warring Talvert, of Richmond, Va.  Anthony was of a rich black complexion, medium size, about twenty-five years of age.  He was intelligent, and a member of the Baptist Church.  His master was a member of the Presbyterian Church and held family prayers with the servants.  But Anthony believed seriously, that his master prayers with the servants.  But Anthony believed seriously, that his master was no more than a "whitened sepulchre," one who was fond of saying, "Lord, Lord," but did not do what the Lord bade him, consequently Anthony felt, that before the Great Judge his "master's many prayers" would not benefit him, as long as he continued to hold his fellowmen in bondage.  He left a father, Samuel Loney, and mother, Rebecca also, one sister and four brothers.  His old father had bought himself and was free; likewise his mother, being very old, had been allowed to go free.  Anthony escaped in May, 1857.


      Cornelius took passage per the Underground Rail Road, in March, 1857, from the neighborhood of Salvington, Stafford county, Va.  He

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stated that he had been claimed by Henry L. Brooke, whom he declared to be a " hard drinker and a hard swearer."  Cornelius had been very much bleached by the Patriarchal Institution, and he was shrewd enough to take advantage of this circumstance.  In regions of country where men were less critical and less experienced than Southerners, as to how the bleaching process was brought about, Cornelius Scott would have had no difficulty whatever in passing for a white man of the most improved Anglo Saxon type.  Although a young man only twenty-three years of age, and quite stout, his fair complexion was decidedly against him.  He concluded, that for this very reason, he would not have been valued at more than five hundred dollars in the market.  He left his mother (Ann Stubbs, and half brother, Isaiah), and traveled as a white man.



     This candidate for Canada had the good fortune to escape the clutches of his mistress, Mrs. Elvina Duncans, widow of the late Rev. James Duncans, who lived near Cumberland, Md.  He had very serious complaints to allege against his mistress, "who was a member of the Presbyterian Church."  To use his own language, "the servants in the house were treated worse than dogs."  John was thirty-two years of age, dark chestnut color, well made, prepossessing in appearance, and he "fled to keep from being sold."  With the Underground Rail Road he was "highly delighted."  Nor was he less pleased with the thought, that he had caused his mistress, who was "one of the worst women who ever lived," to lose twelve hundred dollars by him.  He escaped in March, 1857.  He did not admit that he loved slavery any the better for the reason that his master was a preacher, or that his mistress was the wife of a preacher.  Although a common farm hand, Samuel had common sense, and for a long time previous had been watching closely the conduct of his mistress, and at the same time had been laying his plans for escaping on the Underground Rail Road the first chance.

     $100 REWARD - My negro man Richard has been missing since Sunday night, March 22d.  I will give $100 to any one who will secure him or deliver him to me.  Richard is thirty years old, but looks older; very short legs, dark, but rather bright color, broad cheek bones, a respectful and serious manner, generally looks away when spoken to, small moustache and beard (but he may have them off).  He is a re markably intelligent man, and can turn his hand to anything.  He took with him a bag made of Brussels carpet, with my name written in large, rough letters on the bottom, and a good stock of coarse and fine clothes, among them a navy cap and a low-crowned hat.  He has been seen about New Kent C. H , and on the Pamunky river, and is no doubt trying to get off in some vessel bound North.
     April 18th, 1857                                                        J. W. RANDOLPH, Richmond, Va.

     Even at this late date, it may perhaps afford Mr. R. a degree of satis-

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faction to know what became of Richard; but if this should not be the case, Richard's children, or mother, or father, if they are living, may possibly see these pages, and thereby be made glad by learning of Richard's wisdom as u traveler, in the terrible days of slave-hunting.  Consequently here is what was recorded of him, April 3d, 1857, at the Underground Rail Road Station, just before a free ticket was tendered him for Canada.  "Richard is thirty-three years of age, small of stature, dark color, smart and resolute.  He was owned by Captain Tucker, of the United States Navy, from whom he fled."  He was "tired of serving, and wanted to marry," was the cause of his escape.  He had no complaint of bad treatment to make against his owner; indeed he said, that he had been "used well all his life."  Nevertheless, Richard felt that this Underground Rail Road was the "greatest road he ever saw."
     When the war broke out, Richard girded on his knapsack and went to help Uncle Sam humble Richmond and break the yoke.

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