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History & Genealogy


(Previously Published in 1879 with title: The Underground Railroad)
For many years connected with the Anti-Slavery Office in Philadelphia, and Chairman of the Acting
Vigilant Committee of the Philadelphia Branch of the Underground Rail Road.

Illustrated with 70 Fine Engravings by Bensell, Schell and Others,
and Portraits from Photographs from Life.

Thou shalt not deliver unto his master the servant that has escaped from his master unto thee. - Deut. xxiii 16.



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      JAMES was a tiller of the soil under the yoke of Joshua Hitch, who lived on a farm about seventeen miles from Baltimore.  James spoke rather favorably of him; indeed, it was through a direct act of kindness on the part of his master that he procured the opportunity to make good his escape.  It appeared from his story, that his master's affairs had become particularly embarrassed, and the Sheriff was making frequent visits to his house.  This sign was interpreted to mean that James, if not others, would have to be sold before long.  The master was much puzzled to decide which way to turn.  He owned but three other adult slaves besides James, and they were
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females.  One of them was his chief housekeeper, and with them all his social relations were of such a nature as to lead James and others to think and say that they "were all his wives."  Or to use James's own language "he had three slave women; two were sisters, and he lived with them all as his wives;  two of them he was very fond of," and desired to keep them from being sold if possible.  The third, he concluded he could not save, she would have to be sold.  In this dilemma, he was good enough to allow James a few days' holiday, for the purpose of finding him a good master.  Expressing his satisfaction and gratification, James, armed with full authority from his master to select a choice specimen, started for Baltimore.
     On reaching Baltimore, however, James carefully steered clear of all slave-holders, and shrewdly turned his attention to the matter of getting an Underground Rail Road ticket for Canada.  After making as much inquiry as he felt was safe, he came to the conclusion to walk of nights for a long distance.  He examined his feet and legs, found that they were in good order, and his faith and hope strong enough to remove a mountain.  Besides several days still remained in which he was permitted to look for a new master, and these he decided could be profitably spent in making his way towards Canada.  So off he started, at no doubt a very diligent pace, for at the end of the first night's journey, he had made much headway, but at the expense of his feet.
     His faith was stronger than ever.  So he rested next day in the woods, concealed, of course, and the next evening started with fresh courage and renewed perseverance.  Finally, he reached Columbia, Pennsylvania, and there he had the happiness to learn, that the mountain which at first had tried his faith so severely, was removed, and friendly hands were reached out and a more speedy and comfortable mode of travel advised.  He was directed to the Vigilance Committee in Philadelphia, from whom he received friendly aid, and all necessary information respecting Canada and how to get there.
     James was thirty-one years of age, rather a fine-looking man, of a chestnut color, and quite intelligent.  He had been a married man, but for two years before his escape, he had been a widower - that is, his wife had been sold away from him in North Carolina, and in that space of time he had received only three letters from her; he had given up all hope of ever seeing her again.  He had two little boys living in Baltimore, whom he was obliged to leave.  Their names were Edward and William. What became of them afterwards was never known at the Philadelphia station.
     James's master was a man of about fifty years of age - who had never been lawfully married, yet had a number of children on his place who were of great concern to him in the midst of other pressing embarrassments.  Of course, the Committee never learned how matters were settled after James left, but, in all probability, his wives, Nancy and Mary (sisters), and Lizzie, with all the children, had to be sold.

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PETER HEINES, Eatontown, North Carolina;  MATTHEW BODAMS, Plymouth, North Carolina;

     Their arrival was announced by Thomas Garrett as follows:
                                                                             WILMINGTON, 7th mo., 19th, 1856
     RESPECTED FRIEND, WILLIAM STILL: - I now have the pleasure of consigning to they care four able-bodied human beings from North Carolina, and five from Virginia, one of which is a girl twelve or thirteen years of age, the rest all men.  After thee ahs seen and conversed with them, thee can determine what is best to be done with them.  I am assured they are such as can take good care of themselves.  Elijah Pennypacker, some time since informed me he could find employment in his neighborhood for two or three good hands.  I should think that those from Carolina would be about as safe in that neighborhood as any place this side of Canada.  Wishing our friends a safe trip, I remain they sincere friend,                                       THOS  GARRETT.
     After conferring with Harry Craige, we have concluded to send five or six of them tonight in the cars, and the balance, if those go safe, to-morrow night, or in the steam-boat on Second day morning, directed to the Anti-Slavery office.

     There was much rejoicing over these select passengers, and very much interesting information was elicited from them.
     PETER was only twenty-one years of age, composed of equal parts of Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-African blood - rather a model looking article," with a fair share of intelligence.  As a slave, he had fared pretty well- he had neither been abused nor stinted of food or clothing, as many others had been.  His duties had been to attend upon his master (and reputed father), Elias Heines, Esq., a lawyer by profession in North Carolina.
     No charges whatever appear to have been made against Mr. Heines, according to the record book; but Peter seemed filled with great delight at the prospects ahead, as well as with the success that had attended his efforts thus far in striking for freedom.
     JAMES was twenty-seven years of age.  His experience had been quite different from that of Peter's.  The heel of a woman, by the name of Mrs.. Ann McCourt, had been on James's neck, and she had caused him to suffer severely.  As James recounted his grievances, while under the rule, he by no means gave her a very flattering character, but, on the contrary, he plainly stated, that she was a "desperate woman" - that he had "never known any good of her," and that he was moved to escape to get rid of her.  In other words,, she had threatened to sell him; this well nigh produced a frenzy in James's mind, for too well did he remember, that he had already
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been sold three times, and in different stages of his bondage had been treated quite cruelly.  In the change of masters he was positive in saying, that he had not found a good one, and, besides, he entertained the belief that such personages were very rare.
     Those of the Committee who listened to James were not a little amazed at his fluency, intelligence and earnestness, and acknowledged that he dealt unusually telling blows against the Patriarchal Institution.
     MATTHEW was twenty-three years of age, very stout - no fool - a man of decided resolution, and of the very best black complexion produced in the South.  Matthew had a very serious bill of complaints against Samuel Simmons, who professed to own him (Matthew), both body and mind, while in this world at least.  Among these complaints was the charge of ill-treatment.  Nevertheless Matthew's joy and pleasure were matchless over his Underground Rail Road triumph, and the prospect of being so soon out of the land and reach of Slavery, and in a land where he could enjoy his freedom as others enjoyed theirs.  Indeed the entire band evinced similar feelings.  Matthew left a brother in Martin county.
     Further sketches of this interesting


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     THREE HUNDRED DOLLARS REWARD, - Ran away from the subscriber, residing near Bladensburg, Prince George's county, Maryland, on Saturday night, the 22d of March, 1856, my negro man, Tom Matthews, aged about 25 years, about 5 feet 9 inches high, dark copper color, full suit of bushy hair, broad face, with high cheek bones, broad and square shoulders, stands and walks very erect, though quite a sluggard in action, except in a dance, at which he is hard to beat.  He wore away a black coat and brown pantaloons.  I will give the above reward if taken and brought home, or secured in jail, so that I get him.
                                                                       E. A. JONES, near Bladensburg, Md.

     As Mr. Jones may be unaware which way his man Tom traveled, this item may inform him that his name was entered on the Underground Rail Road book April 4th 1856, at which date he appeared to be in good health and full of hope for a safe sojourn in Canada.  He was destitute, of course, just as anybody else would hae been, if robbers had stripped him of every dollar of his earnings; but he felt pretty sure, that he could take care of himself in her Majesty's dominion.
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     The Committee, encouraged by his efforts, reached him a helping hand and sent him on to swell the goodly number in the promised land - Canada.
     On the same day that Tom arrived, the Committee had the pleasure of taking JAMES JONES by the hand.  He was owned by Dr. William Stewart, of King George's Court House, Maryland.  He was not, however, in the service of his master at the time of his escape but was hired out in Alexandria.  For some reason, not noticed in the book, James became dissatisfied, changed his name to Henry Rider, got an Underground Rail Road pass and left the Dr. and his other associations in Maryland.  He was one of the well-cared for "articles," and was of very near kin to the white people, at least a half-brother (mulatto, of course).  He was thirty-two years of age, medium size, hard-featured and raw-boned, but "no marks about him."
     James looked as if he had had pretty good health, still the Committee thought that he would have much better in Canada.  After haring a full description of that country and of the great number of fugitives there from Maryland and other parts of the South, "Jim" felt that that was just the place he wanted to find, and was soon off with a free ticket, a letter of introduction, etc.



     Thomas Garrett announced this in the following letter:
                                                                          WILMINGTON, 3d mo., 23d, 1856.
     DEAR FRIEND, WILLIAM STILL: - Captain Fountain has arrived all safe, with the human cargo thee was inquiring for, a few days since.  I had men waiting till 12 o'clock till the Captain arrived at his berth, ready to receive them; last night they then learned that he had landed them at the Rocks, near the old Swedes church, in the care of or efficient Pilot, who is in the employ of my friend, John Hillis, and he has them now in charge.  As soon as my breakfast is over, I will see Hillis and determine what is best to be done in their case.  My own opinion is, we had better send them to Hook and there put them in the cars to-night and send a pilot to take them to thy house.  As Marcus Hook is in Pennsylvania, the agent of the cars runs no risk of the fine of five hundred dollars our State imposes for assisting one of God's poor out of the Slate by steamboat or ears.
                                                                     As ever thy friend,   THOS. GARRETT.


     Rebecca Jones, and her three daughters, Sarah Frances, Mary, and Rebecca; Isaiah Robison, Arthur Spence, Caroline Taylor, and her two daughters, Nancy, and Mary; Daniel Robinson; Thomas Page; Benjamin Dickinson; David Cole and wife.
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     From the tenor of Thomas Garrett's letter, the Committee was prepared for a joyful reception, knowing that Captain F. was not in the habit of doing things by the halves - that he was not in the habit of bringing numbskulls; indeed he brought none but the bravest and most intelligent.  Yet notwithstanding our knowledge of his practice in this respect, when he arrived we were surprised beyond measure.  The women outnumbered the men.  The two young mothers, with their interesting, hearty and fin-looking children representing in blood the two races about equally - presented a very impressive spectacle.
     The men had the appearance of being active, smart, and well disposed, much above the generality of slaves; but, compared with those of the opposite sex, their claims for sympathy were very faint indeed.  No one could possibly avoid the conclusion, that these mothers, with their handsome daughters, were valued on the Ledger of their owners at enormously high prices; that lustful traders and sensualists had already gloated over the thought of buying them in a few short years.  Probably not one of those "beautiful girls would have brought less than fifteen hundred or two thousand dollars at the age of fifteen.  It was therefore a great satisfaction to think, that their mothers, who knew full well to what a fate such slave girls were destined, had labored so heroically to snatch them out of his danger ere the critical hour arrived.

     REBECCA JONES was about twenty-eight years of age; mulatto, good-looking, considerably above medium size, very intelligent, and a true-born heroine.
     The following reward, offered by the notorious negro-trader, Hall, proved that Rebecca and her children were not to be allowed to go free, if slave-hunters could be induced by a heavy pecuniary consideration to recapture them:

     $300 REWARD is offered for the apprehension of negro woman, REBECCA JONES and her three children, and man ISAIAH, belonging to W. W. Davidson, who have disappeared since the 20th inst.  The above reward will be paid for he apprehension and delivery of the said Negroes to my Jail, by the attorney in fact of the owner, or the sum of $250 for the man alone, or $150 for the woman and three children alone.                                           WM. W. HALL, for the Attorney.
     feb. 1

     Years before her escape, her mistress died in England; and as Rebecca had always understood, long before this event, that all the slaves were to be freed at the death of her mistress, she was not prepared to believe any other report.  It turned out, however, as in thousands of other instances, that no will could be found, and, of course, the administrators retained the slave property, regardless of any verbal expressions respecting freeing, etc.  Rebecca closely watched the course of the administrators, and in the meanwhile firmly resolved, that neither she nor her children should ever serve another master.  Rather than submit, she declared that she would
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take the lives of her children and then her own.  Notwithstanding her bold and decided stand, the report went out that she was to be sold, and that all the slaves were still to be held in bondage.  Rebecca's sympathizers and friends advised her, as they thought for the best, to get a friend or gentleman to purchase her for herself.  To this she replied:   "Not three cents would I give, nor do I want any of my friends to buy me, not if they could get me for three cents.  It would be of no use," she contended, "as she was fully bent on dying, rather than remain a slave."  The slave-holders evidently understood her, and were in no hurry about bringing her case to an issue - they rather gave her time to become calm.  But Rebecca was inflexible.
     Six years before her arrival, her husband had escaped, in company with the noted fugitive, "Shadrach."  For a time after he fled, she frequently received letters from him, but for a long while he had ceased to write, and of late she had heard nothing from him.
     In escaping stowed away in the boat, she suffered terribly, but faithfully endured to the end, and was only too happy when the agony was over.  After resting and getting thoroughly refreshed in Philadelphia, she, with others, was forwarded to Boston, for her heart was there.  Several letters were received from her, respecting her prospects, etc., from which it appears that she had gained some knowledge of her husband, although not of a satisfactory nature.  At any rate she decided that she could not receive him back again.  The following letter has referenced to her prospects, going to California, her husband, etc.:

                                                         PARKER HOUSE, School street, Boston, Oct. 18th, '56.
     MY DEAR SIR: - I can hardly express the pleasure I feel at the receipt of your kind letter; but allow me to thank you for the same.
     And now I will tell you my reasons for going to California.  Mrs. Tarrol, a cousin of my husband, has sent for me.  She says I can do much better there than in Boston.  And as I have my children's welfare to look to, I have concluded to go.  Of course I shall be just as likely to hear from home there as here  Please tell Mr. Bagnale I shall expect one letter from him before I leave here.
     I should like to hear from my brothers and sisters once more, and let me hear every particular.  You never can know how anxious I am to hear from them; do please impress this upon their minds.
     I have written two letters to Dr. Lundy and never received an answer.  I heard Mrs. Lundy was dead, and thought that might possibly be the reason he had not replied to me.  Please tell the Doctor I should take it as a great favor if he would write me a few lines.
     I suppose you think I am going to live with my husband again.  Let me assure you 'tis no such thing.  My mind is as firm as ever.  And believe me, in going away from Boston, I am going away from him, for I have heard he is living somewhere near.  He has been making inquiries about me, but that can make no difference in my feelings to him.  I hope that yourself, wife and family are all quite well.  Please remember me to them all.  Do me a favor to give my love to all inquiring friends.  I should be most happy to have any letters of introduction you may think me worthy of, and I trust I shall ever remain.
                                                                 Yours faithfully,             REBECCA JONES.
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     P. S. - I do not know if I shall go this Fall, or in the Spring.  It will depend upon the letter I receive from California, but whichever it may be, I shall be happy to year from you very soon.

     ISAIAH, who was a fellow servant with Rebecca, and was included in the reward offered by Hall for Rebecca, etc. was a young man about twenty-three years of age, a mulatto, intelligent and of prepossessing manners.  A purely ardent thirst for liberty prompted him to flee; although he declared that he had been treated very badly, and had even suffered severely form being shamefully "beaten."  He had, however, been permitted to hire his time by the year, for which one hundred and twenty-dollars were regularly demanded by his owner.  Young as he was, he was a married man, with a wife and two children, to whom he was devoted.  He had besides two brothers and two sisters for whom he felt a war degree of brotherly affection; yet when the hour arrived for him to accept a chance for freedom at the apparent sacrifice of these dearest ties of kindred, he was found heroic enough for his painful ordeal, and to give up all for freedom.

     CAROLINE TAYLOR and her two children, were also from Norfolk, and came by boat.  Upon the whole, they were not less interesting than Rebecca Jones and her three little girls.  Although Caroline was not in her


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     ARTHUR SPENCE also deserves a notice.  He was from North Carolina, about twenty-four years of age, and of pleasing appearance, and was heart and soul in sympathy with the cause of the Underground Rail Road.  In North Carolina he declared that he had been heavily oppressed by being compelled to pay $175 per annum for his hire.  In order to get rid of this heavy load, by shrewd management he gained access to the kind-hearted Captain and procured an Underground Rail Road ticket.  In leaving
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bondage, he was obliged to leave his mother, two brothers and one sister.  He appeared to be composed of just the kind of material for making a good British subject.

     BEN DICKINSON.  Ben was also a native of North Carolina - located at Eatontown, being the property of "Miss Ann Blunt, who was very hard."  In slave property Miss Blunt was interested in the number of about "ninety head."  She was much in the habit of hiring out servants, and in thus disposing of her slaves Ben thought she was a great deal more concerned in getting good prices for herself than good places for them.  Indeed he declared that "she did not care how mean the place was, if she could only get her price."  For three years Ben had Canada and the Underground Rail Road in view, having been "badly treated."  At last the long-looked for time arrived, and he conferred neither with master nor mistress, but "picked himself up" and "took out."  Age twenty-eight, medium size, quite dark, a good carpenter, and generally intelligent.  Left two sisters, etc.
     Of this heroic and promising party we can only mention, in conclusion, one more passenger, namely:

     TOM PAGEAt the time of his arrival, his name only was enrolled on the book.  Yet he was not a passenger soon to be forgotten - he was but a mere boy, probably eighteen years of age; but a more apt, ready-witted, active, intelligent and self-reliant fellow is not often seen.
     Judging from his smartness, under slavery, with no chances, it was easy to imagine how creditably he might with a white boy's chances have climbed the hill of art and science.  Obviously he had intellect enough, it properly cultivated, to fill any station within the ordinary reach of intelligent American citizens.  He could read and write remarkably well for a slave, and well did he understand his advantages in this particular; indeed if slave-holders had only been aware of the growing tendency of Tom's mind, they would have rejoiced at hearing of his departure for Canada; he was a most dangerous piece of property to be growing up amongst slaves.
     After leaving the Committee and going North his uncaged mind felt the need of more education, and at the same time he was eager to make money, and do something in life.  As he had no one to depend on, parents and relatives being left behind in Norfolk, he felt that he must rely upon himself, young as he was.  He first took up his abode in Boston, or New Bedford, where most of the party with whom he escaped went, and where he had an aunt, and perhaps some other distant kin.  There he worked and was a live young man indeed - among the foremost in ideals and notions about freedom, etc., as many letters from him bore evidence.  After spending a year or more in Massachusetts, he had a desire to see how the fugitives were doing in Upper and Lower Canada, and if any better chances existed in these parts for men of his stamp.
     Some of his letters, from different places, gave proof of real thought
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and close observation, but they were not generally saved, probably were loaned to be read by friendly eyes.  Nevertheless the two subjoined will, in a measure, suffice to give some idea of his intelligence, etc.

                                                                       BOSTON, MASS., Feb. 25th, 1857.
     WILLIAM STILL, ESQ.: - Dear Sir - I have........


                                                                       NIAGARA FALLS, N. Y., Oct. 6th, '58.
     DEAR SIR: - I received your kind letter and I was very glad to hear from you and your family.  this leaves me well, and I hope when this comes to hand it may find you the same.  I have seen a large number of your U. G. R. R. friends in my travels through the Eastern as well as the Western States.  Well there are a good many form my own city who I know - some I talk to on private matters and some I wont.  Well around here............................MORE TO COME

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     JOSEPH CORNISH was about forty years of age when he escaped.  The heavy bonds of Slavery made him miserable.  He was a man of much natural ability, quite dark, well-made, and said that he had been "worked very hard."  According to his statement, he had been an "acceptable preacher in the African Methodist Church," and was also "respected
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by the respectable white and colored people in his neighborhood."  He would not have escaped but for fear of being sold, as he had a wife and five children to whom he was very much attached, but had to leave them behind.  Fortunately they were free.
     Of his ministry and connection with the Church, he spoke with feelings of apparent solemnity, evidently under the impression that the little flock he left would be without a shepherd.  Of his master, Captain Samuel Le Count, of the U. S. Navy, he had not one good word to speak; at least nothing of the kind is found on the Record Book; but, on the contrary, he declared that "he was very hard on his servants, allowing them no chance whatever to make a little ready money for themselves."  So in turning his face towards the Underground Rail Road, and his back against slavery, he felt that he was doing God service.
     The Committee regarded him as a remarkable man, and was much impressed with his story, and felt it to be a privilege and a pleasure to aid him.

     LEWIS FRANCIS was a man of medium size, twenty-seven years of age, good-looking and intelligent.  He stated that he had been hired out from a boy to a barber in Baltimore.  For his hire his mistress received eight dollars per mouth.
     To encourage Lewis, his kind-hearted mistress allowed him out of his own wages the sum of two dollars and fifty cents per annum!  His clothing he got as best he could, but nothing did she allow him for that purpose.  Even with this arrangement she had been dissatisfied of late years, and thought she was not getting enough out of Lewis; she, therefore, talked strongly of selling him.  This threat was very annoying to Lewis, so much so, that he made up his mind that he would one day let her see, that so far as he was concerned, it was easier to talk of selling than it would be to carry out her threat. 
    With this growing desire for freedom he gained what little light he could on the subject of traveling, Canada, etc. and at a given time off he started on his journey and found his way to the Committee, who imparted substantial aid as usual.

     ALEXANDER MUNSON, alias Samuel Garrett.  This candidate for Canada was only eighteen years of age; a well-grown lad, however, and had the one idea that "all men were born free" pretty deeply rooted in his mind.


     ANNA SCOTT and husband, Samuel Scott.  This couple escaped from Cecil Cross-Roads, Md.  The wife, in this instance, evidently took the lead, and acted the more manly part in striking for freedom; therefore, our notice of this arrival will chiefly relate to her.
     Anna was owned by a widow, named Mrs. Ann Elizabeth Lushy, who resided on a farm of her own.  Fifteen slaves, with other stock, were kept on the place.  She was accustomed to rule with severity, being governed by a "high temper," and in nowise disposed to allow her slaves to enjoy even ordinary privileges, and besides, would occasionally sell to the Southern market.  She was calculated to render slave life very unhappy.  Anna portrayed her mistress's treatment of the slaves with much earnestness, especially when referring to the sale of her own brother and sister.  Upon the whole, the mistress was so hateful to Anna, that she resolved not to live in the house with her.  During several years prior to her escape, Anna had been hired out, where she had been treated a little more decently than her mistress was wont to do; on this account she was less willing to put up with any subsequent abuse from her mistress.
     To escape was the only remedy, so she made up her mind, that she would leave at all hazards.  She gave her husband to understand, that she has resolved to seek a home in Canada.  Fortunately, he was free, but slavery had many ways of putting the yoke on the colored man, even though he might be free; it was bound to keep him in ignorance, and at the same time miserably abject, so that he wuld scarcely dare to look up in the presence of white people.

     SAM, apparently, was one of the number who had been greatly wronged in this particular.  He had less spirit than his wife, who had been directly goaded to desperation.  He agreed, however, to stand by her  in her struggles while fleeing, and did so, for which he deserves credit.  It must be admitted, that it required some considerable nerve for a free man even to join his wife in an effort of this character.  In setting out, Anna had to leave her father (Jacob Taylor), seven sisters and two brothers.  The names of the sisters were as follows:  Emeline, Susan, Ann, Delilah, Mary Eliza, Rosetta, Effie Ellender and Elizabeth; the brothers - Emson and Perry.  For the commencement of their journey they availed themselves of the Christmas holidays, but had to suffer from the cold weather they encountered.  Yet they got along tolerably well, and were much cheered by the attention of aid they received from the Committee.

     WILLIAM HENRY LAMISON came from near Newcastle, Delaware.  He was smarter enough to take advantage of the opportunity to escape at the age of twenty-one.  As he had given the matter his fullest attention for a long
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time, he was prepared to take rapid progress when he did start, and as he had no great distance to travel it is not unlikely, that while his master was one night sleeping soundly, this young piece of property (worth at least $1,000 in the market), was crossing Mason and Dixon's Line, and steering directly for Canada.  Francis Harkins was the name of the master.  William did not give him a very bad character.

     GEORGE WASHINGTON GOOSEBERRY - alias ISAAC STOUT, also took advantage of the holidays to separate from his old master, Anthony Rybold, a farmer living near Newcastle, Delaware.  Nothing but the desire to be free moved George to escape.  He was a young man about twenty-three years of age, of a pure black color, in stature, medium size, and well-made.  Nothing remarkable is noted in the book in any way connected with his life or escape.

     CAROLINE GRAVES.   Caroline was of the bond class belonging to the State of Maryland.  Having reached the age of forty without being content, and seeing no bright prospect in the future, she made up her mind to break away from the bonds of Slavery and seek a more congenial atmostphere among strangers in Canada.  She had the privilege of trying two masters in her life-tie; the first she admitted was "kind" to her, but the latter was "cruel."  After arriving in Canada, she wrote back as follows:

                                                                          TORONTO, Jan. 22, 1856.
     DEAR SIR: - WILLIAM STILL - I have found my company they arrived here on monday eving I found them on tusday evening.  Please to be so kind as to send them boxes we are here without close to ware we have some white frendes is goin to pay for them at this end of the road.  The reason that we send this note we are afraid the outher one woudent go strait because it wasent derected wright.  Please to send them by the express than they wont be lost.  Please to send the bil of the boses on with them.  Mrs. Brittion, Lousig street near young street.

     GEORGE GRAHAM and wife, Jane, alias Henry Washington and Eliza.  The cold weather of January was preferred, in this instant, for traveling.  Indeed matters were so disagreeable with them that they could not tarry in their then quarters any longer.  George was twenty-four years of age, quite smart, pleasant countenance, and of dark complexion.
     He had experienced "rough usage" all the way along through life, not unfrequently from severe floggings.  Twice, within the last year, he had been sold.  In order to prevent a renewal of these inflictions he resorted to the Underground Rail Road with his wife, to whom he had only been married six months.
     In one sense, they appeared to be in a sad condition, it being the dead of winter, but their condition in Alexandria, under a brutal master and mistress which both had the misfortune to have, was much sadder.  To give all their due, however, George's wife acknowledged, that she had been "well treated under her old mistress," but through a change, she had fallen into the hands of a "new one, " by whom her life had been rendered most "miserable;" so much so, that she was willing to do almost anything to get rid of her, and was, therefore, driven to join her husband in running away.

     HENRY CHAMBERS, John Chambers, Samuel Fall, and Jonathan Fisher.  This party represented the more promising-looking field-hand slave population of Maryland.  Henry and John were brothers, twenty-four and twenty-six years of age, stout made, chestnut color, good-looking, but in height not quite medium.  Henry "owed service or labor," to a fellow-man by the name of William Rybold, a farmer living near Sassafras Neck, Md.  Henry evidently felt, that he did master Rybold no injustice in testifying that he knew no good of him, although he had labored under him like a beast of burden all his days.  He had been "clothed meanly," and "poorly fed."  He also alleged, that his mistress was worse than his master, as she would "think nothing of knocking and beating the slave women for nothing."  John was owned by Thomas Murphy.  From that day to this, Thomas may have been troubling his brain to know why his man John treated him so shabbily as to leave him in the manner that he did.  Jack had a good reason for his course, nevertheless.  In his corn field-phrase he declared, that his master Murphy would not give you half clothes, and besides he was a "hard man," who kept Jack working out on hire.  Therefore, feeling his wrongs keenly, Jack decided, with his other friends, to run off and be free.

     SAM, another comrade, was also owned by William RyboldSam had just arrived at his maturity (twenty-one), when he was invited to join in the plot to escape.  A few brief words from Sam soon explained the mystery.  It was this: his master, as he said, had been in the habit of tying him up by the hands and flogging him unmercifully; besides, in the allowance of food and clothing, he always "stinted the slaves yet worked them very hard."  Sam's chances for education had been very unfavorable, but he had mind enough to know that liberty was worth struggling for.  He was willing to make the trial with the other boys.  He was of a dark chestnut color, and of medium size.

     JONATHAN belongs to A. Rybold, and was only nineteen years of age.  All that need be said in relation to his testimony, is, that it agreed with his colleague's and fellow-servant's, Samuel.  Before starting on their journey, they felt the need of new names, and in putting their wits together, they soon fixed this matter by deciding to pass in future by the following names:  James and David Green, John Henry, and Jonathan Fisher.
In the brief sketches given in this chapter, some lost ones, seeking information of relatives, may find comfort, even if the general reader should fail to be interested.
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escape, and that the service or labor of the person escaping is due to the party in such record mentioned.  And upon the production, by the said party, of other and further evidence, if necessary, either oral or by affidavit, in addition to what is contained in said record of the identity of the person escaping, he or she shall be delivered up to the claimant.  And said court, commissioners, judge, or other persons authorized by this act to grant certificates to claimants of fugitives, shall, upon the production of the record and other evidence aforesaid, grant to such claimant a certificate of his right to take any such person, identified and proved to be owing service or labor as aforesaid, which certificate shall authorize such claimant to seize, or arrest and transport such person to the State or Territory from which he escaped:  Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be construed as requiring the production of a transcript of such record as evidence of aforesaid, but in its absence, the claim shall be heard and determined upon the other satisfactory proofs competent in law.



     Having inserted the Fugitive Slave Bill in these records of the Underground Rail Road, one or two slave cases will doubtless suffice to illustrate the effect of its passage on the public mind, and the colored people in particular.  The deepest feelings of loathing, contempt and opposition were manifested y the opponents of Slavery on every hand.  Anti-slavery papers, lecturers, preachers, etc., arrayed them selves boldly against it on the ground of its inhumanity and violation of the laws of God.
     On the other hand, the slave-holders South, and their pro-slavery adherents in the North demanded the most abject obedience from all parties, regardless of conscience or obligation to God.  In order to compel such obedience, as well as to prove the practicability of the law, unbounded zeal daily marked the attempt on the part of slave-holders and slave-catchers to refasten the fetters on the limbs of fugitives in different parts of the North, whither they had escaped.
     In this dark hour, when colored men's rights were so insecure, as a matter of self-defence, they felt called upon to arm themselves and resist all kidnapping intruders, although clothed with the authority of wicked law.  Among the most exciting cases tending to justify this course, the following may be named:

     JAMES HAMLET was the first slave case who was summarily arrested under the Fugitive Slave Law, and sent back to bondage from New York.
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     WILLIAM and ELLEN CRAFT were hotly pursued to Boston by hunters from Georgia.
     ADAM GIBSON, a free colored man, residing in Philadelphia, was arrested, delivered into the hands of his alleged claimants, by commissioner EDward D. Ingraham, and hurried into Slavery.
     EUPHEMIA WILLIAMS (the mother of six living children), - her case excited much interest and sympathy.
     SHADRACH was arrested and rescued in Boston.
     HANNAH DELLUM and her child were returned to Slavery from Philadelphia.
     THOMAS HALL and his wife were pounced upon at midnight in Chester county, beaten and dragged off to Slavery, etc.
     And, as if gloating over their repeated successes, and utterly regardless of all caution, about one year after the passage of this nefarious bill, a party of slave-hunters arranged for a grand capture at Christiana.
     One year from the passage of the law, at a time when alarm and excitement were running high, the most decided stand was taken at Christiana, in the State of Pennsylvania, to defeat the law, and defend freedom.  Fortunately for the fugitives the plans of the slave-hunters and officials leaked out while arrangements were making in Philadelphia for the capture, and, information being sent to the Anti-slavery office, a messenger was at once dispatched to Christiana to put all persons supposed to be in danger on their guard.
     Among those thus notified, were brave hearts, who did not believe in running away form slave-catchers.  They resolved to stand up for the right of self-defence.  They loved liberty and hatred Slavery, and when the slave-catchers arrived, they were prepared for them.  Of the contest, on that bloody morning, we have copied a report, carefully written at the time, by C. M. Burleigh, editor of the "Pennsylvania Freeman," who visited the scene of battle, immediately after it was over, and doubtless obtained as faithful an account of all the facts in the case, as could then be had.
     "Last Thursday morning, (the 11th inst.), a peaceful neighborhood in the borders of Lancaster, was made the scene of a bloody battle, resulting from an attempt to capture seven colored men as fugitive slaves.  as the reports of the affray which came to us were contradictory, and having good reason to believe that those of the daily press were grossly one-sided and unfair, we repaired to the scene of the tragedy, and, by patient inquiry and careful examination, endeavored to learn the real facts.  To do this, from the varying and conflicting statements which we encountered, scarcely account we give below, as the result of these inquiries, is substantially correct.
     Very early on the 11th inst. a party of slave hunters went into a neigh
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borhood about two miles west of Christiana, near the eastern border of Lancaster county, in pursuit of fugitive slaves.  The party consisted of Edward Gorsuch, his son, Dickerson Gorsuch, his nephew, Dr. Pearce, Nicholas Hutchins, and others, all from Baltimore county, Md., and one Henry H. Kline, a notorious slave-catching constable form Philadelphia, who had been deputized by Commissioner Ingraham for this business.  At about day-dawn they were discovered lying in an ambush near the house of one William Parker, a colored man, by an inmate of the house, who had started for his work.  He fled back to the house, pursued by the slave-hunters, who entered the lower part of the house, but were unable to force their way into the upper part, to which the family had retired.  A horn was blown from an upper window; two shots were fired, both, as we believe, though we are not certain, by the assailants, one at the colored man who fled into the house, and the other at the inmates, through the window.  No one was wounded by either.  A parley ensued.  The slave-holder demanded his slaves, who he said were concealed in the house.  The colored men presented themselves successively at the window, and asked if they were the slaves claimed; Gorsuch said, that neither of them was his slave.  They told him that they were the only colored men in the house, and were determined never to be taken alive as slaves.  Soon the colored people of the neighborhood, alarmed by the horn, began to gather, armed with guns, axes, corn-cutters, or clubs.  Mutual threatenings were uttered by the two parties.  The slave-holders told the blacks that resistance would be useless, as they had a party of thirty men in the woods near by.  The blacks warned them again to leave, as they would die  before they would go into Slavery.
     From an hour to an hour and a half passed in these parleyings, angry conversations, and threats; the blacks increasing by new arrivals, until they probably numbered from thirty to fifty, most of them armed in some way.  About this time, Castner Hanaway, a white man, and a Friend, who resided in the neighborhood, rode up, and was soon followed by Elijah Lewis, another Friend, a merchant, in Cooperville, both gentlemen highly esteemed as worthy and peaceable citizens.  As they came up, Kline, the deputy marshal, ordered them to aid him, as a United States officer, to capture the fugitive slaves.  They refused of course, as would any man not utterly destitute of honor, humanity, and moral principle, and warned the assailants that it was madness for them to attempt to capture fugitive slaves there, or even to remain, and begged them if they wished to save their own lives, to leave the ground.  Kline replied, "Do you really think so?"  "Yes," was the answer, "the sooner you leave, the better, if you would prevent bloodshed."  Kline then left the ground, retiring into very safe distance into a cornfield, and took the woods.  The blacks were so exasperated by his threats, that, but for the interposition of the two white Friends, it is very doubtful whether he would have escaped without injury.  Messrs. Hanaway and



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